Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Big-Five Model

  • John A. JohnsonEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_1212-1



The Big-Five Model (B5M) is a representation of the universe of personality traits in terms of five broad personality dimensions: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Intellect or Imagination. These five dimensions emerged reliably over decades of research factor-analyzing the way people describe each other with ordinary language traits such as aggressive, introverted, and sociable. The B5M is nearly identical to the Five-Factor Model (FFM), which emerged from research based on personality questionnaires. Although both the B5M and FFM have common roots in the research of Raymond Cattell and although the terms B5M and FFM are often used interchangeably today, the two models have distinctive histories, are based on different methods and theoretical assumptions, and hold slightly different conceptions of the factors, especially the fifth factor, labeled Openness to Experience in the FFM. The FFM...


Personality Inventory Emotional Stability Ordinary Language Personality Questionnaire AB5C Model 
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Ashton Southard
    • 1
  1. 1.Oakland UniversityRochesterUSA