Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Bem, Sandra

  • Maureen C. McHugh
  • Carla Golden
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_1209-1

Definition

Sandra Lipsitz Bem (1944–2014) was an American feminist psychologist.

Introduction

Sandra Bem, feminist psychologist, died in 2014, leaving a legacy of scholarship which challenged us to (re)conceptualize gender and consider how gender prescriptions impact our lives and relationships (Golden and McHugh 2015). Sandra Bem presented ideas that challenged established notions of gender and sexuality. For example, Sandra Bem (1974) challenged the traditional position that masculinity and femininity were bipolar opposites and that being sex typed (expressing characteristics thought to be consistent with one’s biological sex) is mentally healthy. She introduced a theory of androgyny in which masculinity and femininity are conceptualized and measured independently. In her theory, an individual who enacts high levels of positive masculine and feminine characteristics is androgynous. She also detailed the concepts of gender schemas and androcentrism and critiqued biological...

Keywords

Gender Role Gender Schema Feminine Trait Gender Schema Theory Compulsory Heterosexuality 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. Bem, S. L. (1974). The measurement of psychological androgyny. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 155–162.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bem, S. L. (1975). Sex role adaptability: One consequence of psychological androgyny. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 634–643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bem, S. L. (1977). On the utility of alternative procedures for assessing psychological androgyny. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45, 196–205.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bem, S. L. (1979). The theory and measurement of androgyny: A reply to the Pedhazur-Tetenbaum and Locksley-Colten critiques. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1047–1054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bem, S. L. (1981a). Bem sex role inventory professional manual. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bem, S. L. (1981b). Gender schema theory: A cognitive account of sex typing. Psychological Review, 88, 354–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bem, S. L. (1993). The lenses of gender: Transforming the debate on sexual inequality. New haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bem, S. L. (1996). Transforming the debate on sexual inequality: From biological difference to institutionalized androcentrism. In J. C. Chrisler, C. Golden, & P. D. Rozee (Eds.), Lectures on the psychology of women (pp. 9–21). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  9. Bem, S. L. (1998). An unconventional family. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bem, S. L., & Bem, D. J. (1970). Training the woman to know her place: The power of a nonconscious ideology. In S. Cox (Ed.), Female psychology: The emerging self (pp. 180–191). Chicago: SRA Associates.Google Scholar
  11. Bem, S. L., & Bem, D. J. (1973). Does sex-biased job advertising “aid and abet” sex discrimination? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 3, 6–18. doi:10.1111/j 1559-1816.1973.tb01290.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bem, S. L., & Lenney, E. (1976). Sex typing and the avoidance of cross-sex behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33, 48–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bem, S. L., Martyna, W., & Watson, C. (1976). Sex typing and androgyny: Further explorations of the expressive domain. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 1016–1023. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.34.5.1016.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. George, M. (2012). Profile Sandra Bem. In A. Rutherford (Ed.), Psychology’s feminist voices multimedia internet archive. Retrieved from http://www.feministvoices.com/sandrabem.
  15. Golden, C., & McHugh, M. C. (2015). Sandra Bem (obituary). American Psychologist, 70, 280.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Golden, C. R., & McHugh, M. C. (2016). Sandra Bem: Challenging constructions of gender and sex. Sex Roles. Advance online publication. doi:10.1007/s11199-016-0674-2.Google Scholar
  17. Hoffman, R. M., & Borders, L. D. (2001). Twenty-five years after the Bem sex-role inventory: A reassessment and new issues regarding classification variability. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 34, 39–55.Google Scholar
  18. Keener, E., & Mehta, C. M. (Eds.). (2017a). The past, present, and future of masculinity, femininity and gender: Honoring feminist scholar Sandra L. Bem (1944–2014), Part 1. Sex Roles. Google Scholar
  19. Keener, E., & Mehta, C. M. (Eds.). (2017b). The past, present, and future of masculinity, femininity and gender: Honoring feminist scholar Sandra L. Bem (1944–2014), Part 2. Sex Roles. Google Scholar
  20. Starr, C. B., & Zurbriggen, E. L. (2016). Sandra Bem’s gender schema theory after 34 years: A review of its reach and impact. Sex Roles. Advance online publication. doi:10.1007/s11199-016-0591-4.Google Scholar
  21. Whitley, B. E. (1984). Sex role orientation and psychological well being: Two meta analyses. Sex Roles, 12, 207–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyIndiana University of PennsylvaniaIndianaUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyIthaca CollegeIthacaUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Ashton Southard
    • 1
  1. 1.Oakland UniversityRochesterUSA