Sandra Lipsitz Bem (1944–2014) was an American feminist psychologist.
Sandra Bem, feminist psychologist, died in 2014, leaving a legacy of scholarship which challenged us to (re)conceptualize gender and consider how gender prescriptions impact our lives and relationships (Golden and McHugh 2015). Sandra Bem presented ideas that challenged established notions of gender and sexuality. For example, Sandra Bem (1974) challenged the traditional position that masculinity and femininity were bipolar opposites and that being sex typed (expressing characteristics thought to be consistent with one’s biological sex) is mentally healthy. She introduced a theory of androgyny in which masculinity and femininity are conceptualized and measured independently. In her theory, an individual who enacts high levels of positive masculine and feminine characteristics is androgynous. She also detailed the concepts of gender schemas and androcentrism and critiqued biological...
KeywordsGender Role Gender Schema Feminine Trait Gender Schema Theory Compulsory Heterosexuality
- Bem, S. L. (1981a). Bem sex role inventory professional manual. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
- Bem, S. L. (1993). The lenses of gender: Transforming the debate on sexual inequality. New haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
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- George, M. (2012). Profile Sandra Bem. In A. Rutherford (Ed.), Psychology’s feminist voices multimedia internet archive. Retrieved from http://www.feministvoices.com/sandrabem.
- Golden, C. R., & McHugh, M. C. (2016). Sandra Bem: Challenging constructions of gender and sex. Sex Roles. Advance online publication. doi:10.1007/s11199-016-0674-2.Google Scholar
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- Keener, E., & Mehta, C. M. (Eds.). (2017a). The past, present, and future of masculinity, femininity and gender: Honoring feminist scholar Sandra L. Bem (1944–2014), Part 1. Sex Roles. Google Scholar
- Keener, E., & Mehta, C. M. (Eds.). (2017b). The past, present, and future of masculinity, femininity and gender: Honoring feminist scholar Sandra L. Bem (1944–2014), Part 2. Sex Roles. Google Scholar
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