Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Actor-Partner Interdependence Model

  • Gillian McCabeEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_1197-1


The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM ; Kashy and Kenny 1999; Kenny 1996) is a conceptual model of interpersonal relationships that accounts for the lack of independence often observed between pairs of individuals (or dyads).


Individuals exert influence on – and are influenced by – those within their social environment. When research focuses on dyads, as is often the case in developmental research (e.g., parent-child, sibling-sibling), educational research (e.g., teacher-student), and relationship research (e.g., romantic partners, roommates), it is likely that the responses of individuals within each dyad are not independent. This is because individuals are likely influenced by the characteristics of their dyad and the qualities of the other dyad member (Little and Card 2005). When this lack of independence (referred to as interdependence) is unaccounted for, it can bias significance tests (e.g., increase type I errors; Kenny and Judd 1986). The APIM...

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyOakland UniversityRochesterUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Ashton Southard
    • 1
  1. 1.Oakland UniversityRochesterUSA