Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Depressivity

  • Ellen M. KesselEmail author
  • Brandon L. Goldstein
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_1063-1

Definition

A depressive personality style is characterized by a constellation of traits including: joyless, despondent, insecure, guilt-prone, ruminative, indecisive, anxious, quiet and shy, and lacking in vitality and initiative.

Introduction

First, we provide a historical background on the depressive personality. Then, we examine how a depressive personality style can be understood in terms of more basic temperament dimensions, extraversion/positive emotionality, and neuroticism/negative emotionality.

Depressivity

The origins of a depressive personality style can be traced as far back as antiquity. Hippocrates, and later Galen, attributed the clinical state of melancholia to an excess of black bile, whereas a lesser and more stable imbalance of the four humors, predominated by black bile, undergird a melancholic disposition characterized by fear and sadness (Maher and Maher 1994). The first clinical conceptualizations of a depressive personality style emerged when the classical...

Keywords

Depressive Personality Dysthymic Disorder Ruminative Response Style Black Bile Major Depressive Illness 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyStony Brook UniversityStony BrookUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Beth A. Visser
    • 1
  1. 1.Lakehead UniversityOrilliaCanada