Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence

  • Sydney E. Park
  • George J. DemakisEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_1037-1

Definition

The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence – Fourth Edition (WPPSI-IV) is a frequently used measure of intelligence for children under 7-years-old.

Introduction

The original WPPSI was adapted from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) in 1967 (Hill et al. 1985). There have been three revisions since the original (WPSSI-R 1989; WPPSI-III 2002; WPPSI-IV 2012). These revisions are designed to make the test easier to administer, as well as update items and norms with a current standardization sample. The most recent edition has some structural changes, including the addition of new indices and subtests, while still retaining many of the basic structural components of the Wechsler family of tests.

Norms/Standardization Sample

The standardization sample of 1700 children was collected between December 2010 and May 2012. The sample was based on the 2010 US Census data and specifically stratified for age, sex, race/ethnicity, parental education level, and...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Hill, T. D., Reddon, J. R., & Jackson, D. N. (1985). The factor structure of the Wechsler scales: A brief review. Clinical Psychology Review, 5(4), 287–306. doi:10.1016/0272-7358(85)90009-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Raiford, S. E., & Coalson, D. L. (2014). Essentials of WPPSI-IV assessment. Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  3. Watkins, M. W., & Beaujean, A. A. (2014). Bifactor structure of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence – Fourth edition. School Psychology Quarterly, 29(1), 52–63. doi:10.1037/spq0000038.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Wechsler, D. (1989). Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence-revised. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  5. Wechsler, D. (2002). Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence (3rd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  6. Wechsler, D. (2012). Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (4th ed.). Bloomington: Pearson.Google Scholar
  7. Yu, T. Y., Chen, K. L., Chou, W., Yang, S. H., Kung, S. C., Lee, Y. C., & Tung, L. C. (2016). Intelligence quotient discrepancy indicates levels of motor competence in preschool children at risk for developmental delays. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 12, 501–510. doi:10.2147/NDT.S101155.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Health Psychology ProgramUniversity of North Carolina CharlotteCharlotteUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Charlie Reeve
    • 1
  1. 1.University of North Carolina-CharlotteCharlotteUSA