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Treatment of Diabetes with Lifestyle Changes: Physical Activity

  • Roberto Codella
  • Ileana Terruzzi
  • Livio Luzi
Living reference work entry
Part of the Endocrinology book series (ENDOCR)

Abstract

Lifestyle improvements, like dietary changes and increased physical activity, are typically advocated for the cure, prevention, and reversion of several metabolic diseases, including diabetes mellitus. The non-pharmacological low-cost nature, along with the health-related benefits, increases the therapeutical appeal of regular physical activity. In the comprehensive approach of diabetes management, regular physical activity reduces risk of many diseases to which individuals with diabetes, particularly those with type 2 diabetes mellitus, are predisposed: hypertension, coronary heart diseases, and obesity.

The present chapter covers how exercise can facilitate optimal glucose control and lipid levels, assist in weight management, and prevent exacerbation of underlying diabetes-complications, moving medicine forward, far beyond the simplistic motto of “exercise more.”

Keywords

Diabetes management Exercise benefits Physical activity 

List of Abbreviations

CGM

Continuous glucose monitoring

CVD

Cardiovascular diseases

FBG

Fasting blood glucose

GLUT4

Glucose transporter 4

HbA1c

Glycosylated hemoglobin

HDL

High density lipoproteins

ICT

Information and communication technologies

IGT

Impaired glucose tolerance

PI3-kinase

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase

SMBG

Self-monitoring of blood glucose

Notes

Duality of Interest

No potential conflicts of interest relevant to this chapter were reported.

Contribution Statement

All authors were responsible for drafting the manuscript and revising it critically for valuable intellectual content. All authors approved the version to be published.

Funding

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roberto Codella
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ileana Terruzzi
    • 3
  • Livio Luzi
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biomedical Sciences for HealthIRCCS Policlinico San Donato Milanese, Università degli Studi di MilanoMilanItaly
  2. 2.Metabolism Research CenterIRCCS Policlinico San DonatoSan Donato MilaneseItaly
  3. 3.Diabetes Research Institute, Metabolism, Nutrigenomics and Cellular Differentiation UnitSan Raffaele Scientific InstituteMilanItaly

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