Living Reference Work Entry

Daily Routine in Cosmetic Dermatology

Part of the series Clinical Approaches and Procedures in Cosmetic Dermatology pp 1-13

Date: Latest Version

Botulinum Toxins

  • Ada Regina Trindade de AlmeidaAffiliated withHospital do Servidor Público Municipal de São Paulo Email author 
  • , Yanna Kelly SilvaAffiliated withHospital do Servidor Público Municipal de São Paulo


Botulinum toxin (BoNT) has been used over the last 40 years in different medical specialties. Since then its use has been expanded over the decades to new indications, particularly in dermatology. It produces chemodenervation of muscles by inhibiting acetylcholine release on the neuromuscular junction and has been used in cosmetics to treat hyperfunctional and hyperdynamic lines and wrinkles of the face and neck as well as localized hyperhidrosis. It is currently recognized as a safe and effective treatment when standard techniques and recommended doses are used. Due to its mechanism of action, therapeutic doses are extremely small, the effect is highly precise, and systemic adverse effects are rare. There are five sources of botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) worldwide, but BoNT formulations are not identical or interchangeable.


Botulinum toxin Botulinum toxin A Facial and neck rejuvenation Cosmetic dermatology Hyperhidrosis OnabotulinumtoxinA AbobotulinumtoxinA IncobotulinumtoxinA Botulinum toxin A Prosigne Botulinum toxin A Neuronox RimabotulinumtoxinB Wrinkles Glabellar region Periorbital region Crow’s feet Frontal region Perioral region Mental region Marionette lines Platysma