Living Reference Work Entry

Daily Routine in Cosmetic Dermatology

Part of the series Clinical Approaches and Procedures in Cosmetic Dermatology pp 1-14

Date: View Latest Version

Cosmiatric Approach for Melasma

  • Ana Carolina HandelAffiliated withUnesp Email author 
  • , Luciane Donida Bartoli MiotAffiliated withUnesp
  • , Hélio Amante MiotAffiliated withUnesp


Melasma is a chronic acquired focal hypermelanosis localized on sun-exposed areas that commonly affects females during their fertile years. Despite many known risk factors as cumulative sun exposure, oral contraceptive pills, pregnancy, stress, cosmetics, and some drugs, the physiopathology of melasma is not yet fully understood, which limits the development of definitive treatments and prevention strategies. Family occurrence (40–60%) is an evidence of genetic predisposition. Here, we discuss the role of sun protection, topical bleachers, light technologies, peelings, and oral strategies on therapeutic approach of melasma. Moreover, prognostic factors are pointed out.


Melasma Melanosis Contraceptives Oral contraceptives Pregnancy Hormones Chloasma Gonadal steroid hormones Melanosis Pigmentation Skin pigmentation Ultraviolet rays Pigmentation disorders