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Hypertension

  • Lisel Hope
  • Judith Giunta
  • Nathaniel Winer
  • Ho Won Lee
  • Sara Choudhry
  • Samy I. McFarlaneEmail author
Reference work entry

Abstract

Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Hypertension increases the risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and congestive heart failure. Hypertension is twice as frequent in patients with diabetes compared to those without the disease and accounts for up to 75% of CVD risk. When hypertension coexists with diabetes, the risk of stroke or CVD is doubled and the risk for developing end-stage renal disease increases to five to six times, compared to hypertensive patients without diabetes. In this chapter we will discuss the unique aspects of hypertension in patients with diabetes along with disease mechanism and treatment. Therapy for hypertension will be discussed in the light of the new JNC 8 Guidelines published in 2014.

Keywords

Hypertension Cardiovascular disease Diabetes Antihypertensive treatment Proteinuria Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors Angiotensin receptor blockers Nephropathy Microalbuminuria JNC-8 Beta Blockers Calcium channel blockers Diuretics 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lisel Hope
    • 1
  • Judith Giunta
    • 1
  • Nathaniel Winer
    • 1
  • Ho Won Lee
    • 2
  • Sara Choudhry
    • 3
  • Samy I. McFarlane
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and HypertensionState University of New York, Downstate Medical Center and Kings County Hospital CenterBrooklynUSA
  2. 2.EndocrinologyPacific Nephrology AssociatesTacomaUSA
  3. 3.EndocrinologySUNY Downstate Medical CenterCenter ValleyUSA

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