Syndromes of Extreme Insulin Resistance

  • George GrunbergerEmail author
  • Anjana Myneni
  • Bianca Alfonso
Reference work entry


This group of syndromes shares severe insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia with variable clinical manifestations (Kahn et al., N Engl J Med 294:739–745, 1976; Moller and Flier, N Engl J Med 325:938–948, 1991). Attention has been paid to these rare disorders because they provide insight into several aspects of insulin action at the molecular level and advance our understanding of the more common insulin-resistant disorders, such as polycystic ovarian syndrome (Barbieri et al., Fertil Steril 50:197–202, 1988) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (Barroso et al., Nature 402:880–883, 1999).


Insulin resistance Hyperinsulinemia Plasma glucose Glucose tolerance test Serum insulin HOMA Glucose homeostasis Lipoatrophy Acanthosis nigricans Lipodystrophic Rabson-Mendenhall Thiazolidinediones Insulin Immunomodulation Chromium 


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • George Grunberger
    • 1
    Email author
  • Anjana Myneni
    • 2
  • Bianca Alfonso
    • 3
  1. 1.Internal Medicine and Molecular Medicine and GeneticsGrunberger Diabetes Institute, Wayne State University School of MedicineBloomfield HillsUSA
  2. 2.Grunberger Diabetes InstituteBloomfield HillsUSA
  3. 3.Coral GablesUSA

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