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Genetics of Type 2 Diabetes: From Candidate Genes to Genome-Wide Association Analysis

  • Jeffrey Kleinberger
  • Kevin Brown
  • Kristi D. SilverEmail author
  • Alan R. Shuldiner
Reference work entry

Abstract

The recent epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2D) can be mainly attributed to current changes in environment, including sedentary lifestyle and excess calorie intake. However, T2D is a complex multifactorial disease that is affected by both genetic and environmental influences. For example, the highly penetrant monogenic forms of diabetes described in this chapter show how rare genetic variants can cause diabetes. While individuals carrying these variants are not considered to have T2D, these forms of diabetes show the large effect-size that genetic variants can have. Alternatively, age-related complex diseases, like T2D, are influenced by a large number of common genetic variants that have relatively small effects on risk. Through candidate gene studies, family-based linkage studies, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS), nearly 100 genetic variants have been shown to contribute to T2D susceptibility. Some of the most well-established variants and loci are described in this chapter. However, these variants still only account for a small percentage of the total heritability of T2D. While the understanding of the genetics of diabetes has greatly improved in the last 30 years, technological advancement, such as high-throughput genome sequencing, will allow for a deeper understanding of the role of genetics in T2D.

Keywords

Genome wide Association Study Monogenic Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey Kleinberger
    • 1
  • Kevin Brown
    • 1
  • Kristi D. Silver
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alan R. Shuldiner
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and NutritionUniversity of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Program for Personalized and Genomic Medicine, and Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and NutritionUniversity of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

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