Intelligence in animals can be defined in terms of problem-solving ability, both acquisition to solve problems and the ability to generalize what is learned to novel situations. Intelligence may also be measured in terms of behavioral flexibility, which is comprised of inhibition and innovation components and which concerns adaptability to new and changing environments.
Two main categories of inquiry derive from the central topic of nonhuman intelligence. The first category entails questions regarding species differences. Are some species of animals considered more intelligent than others? If so, which species are considered most intelligent? These questions should lead one to ponder whether it is fair to compare different species on the same tasks. The second category entails individual differences. Do individuals within a species vary in their intelligence,...
KeywordsReversal Learning Giant Panda Behavioral Flexibility Cognitive Complexity Intelligent Behavior
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