Leadership occurs when an individual or subset of individuals within a social group or aggregation has a disproportional influence on the behavioral outcomes of conspecific members within the group regardless of how this effect is achieved.
Leadership is ubiquitous within animal societies, occurring when one individual or subset of individuals, the leader(s), exert(s) a disproportional influence on the behaviors of others (followers; Smith et al. 2016). Leaders emerge in non-human groups or aggregations of animals regardless of the how this influence is achieved (Smith et al. 2016). Within non-human animals, most research has focused on collective movements during groups travel (e.g., Reyonds 1987; Boinski and Garber 2000). More recently, the concept of leadership has been extended to also explain collection action within the domains of foraging, conflict resolution and between-group conflicts (Smith et...
- Boinski, S., & Garber, P. A. (2000). On the move: How and why animals travel in groups. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- de Waal, F. B. (1990). Peacemaking among primates. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Smith, J. E., Gavrilets, S., Borgerhoff Mulder, M., Hooper, P., El Mouden, C., Nettle, D., Hauert, C., Hill, K., Perry, S., Pusey, A. E., van Vugt, M., & Smith, E. A. (2016). Leadership in mammalian societies: Emergence, distribution, power, and payoff. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 31, 54–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar