Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science

Living Edition
| Editors: Todd K. Shackelford, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford

Grouping and Predation

  • Christos IoannouEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_2699-1



The formation of groups is one of the most conspicuous and striking behaviors seen in animals. It is observed across a diverse range of living organisms, from colonies of multicell slime molds to human cities that rely on extensive and complex infrastructure. The reasons we may observe a set of individuals in closer proximity to one another than expected from a random distribution are varied. Animals that are usually asocial may aggregate around a food resource, such as brown bears (Ursus arctos) feeding on migrating salmon in rivers, or aggregation may emerge simply from a lack of dispersal, where offspring tend to be found in close proximity to their parents and other relatives. In many other cases, however, aggregations are a result of social attraction, where individuals actively seek out the company of others. Once such groups form, they can be very stable, with the group moving as a unit, synchronizing their activity...


Predation Risk Individual Prey Prey Group Group Size Increase Reduce Predation Risk 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of BristolBristolUK

Section editors and affiliations

  • Russell Jackson
    • 1
  1. 1.University of IdahoMoscowUSA