Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science

Living Edition
| Editors: Todd K. Shackelford, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford

Same-Sex Relationships

  • Jacob M. VigilEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_2400-1



Same-sex relationships are intimate affiliations between individuals of the same chromosomal sex and/or gender that typically share homogenous characteristics such as age and social status.


The formation of same-sex relationships evolved to provide a context for humans to engage in reciprocal interchanges of resources with and learn sexually specialized behaviors from conspecifics. Same-sex relationships also serve as the ecological context in which intrasexually selected characteristics are expressed and moderate certain social fitness outcomes.

Evolutionary Origins

The social nature of humans consists of sexually specialized cognitive and behavioral adaptations that are developed and expressed in the context of and ultimately function for regulating same-sex relationships. These relationships evolved in humans and other socially dependent animals for...


Social Agent Coalition Member Health Promotion Behavior Reciprocal Altruism Ancestral Environment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Carey Fitzgerald
    • 1
  1. 1.University of South Carolina - BeaufortBlufftonUSA