Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science

Living Edition
| Editors: Todd K. Shackelford, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford

Same-Sex Friendships

  • Melikşah DemirEmail author
  • Luke Chiverton
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_1610-1



Same-sex friendship is a nonsexual and nonfamilial communal bond characterized by voluntary independence between two same-sex individuals.


Friendship is a unique dyadic relationship that is not only cherished but also sought after for a variety of reasons in almost every culture studied. Not surprisingly, there is a word describing a relationship established outside the kin environment in nearly all cultures and languages. Even though some of these words share a common root with kin-relation words, they over time became uniquely associated with the idea of friendship (Krappman 1996).

One critical issue in defining friendship concerns the possible overlap with other relationships. The theorized lack of sexual relations between friends differentiates it from relationships specifically formed to address mate attraction and retention. Also, the idea of voluntary interdependence as one of the defining feature of friendship...

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychological SciencesNorthern Arizona UniversityFlagstaffUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Kevin Beaver
    • 1
  1. 1.Florida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA