Living Reference Work Entry

Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science

pp 1-3

Date: Latest Version

Alarm Callers Are Females with Greatest Genetic Representation

  • Edward McLesterAffiliated withLiverpool John Moores University Email author 
  • , Alex K. PielAffiliated withLiverpool John Moores University


Cooperation; Dispersal; Nepotism; Partial migration; Philopatry; Primate


Philopatry is the retention of individuals in the natal group or territory (Ekmann et al. 2001). Kin selection is a selective interaction between relatives that increases the fitness of the recipient at the expense of the fitness of the actor. Such behavior will be selected if the cost to the actor (c) is less than the benefit to the recipient (b) multiplied by the coefficient of relatedness (r). This can be summarized with Hamilton’s law: br > c (reviewed in Silk 2002). Nepotism is behavior between relatives through which the actor provides a benefit to the recipient regardless of any increase or decrease in the fitness of the actor (Silk 2002).


Philopatry to and dispersal from a natal group is a critical element of any animal’s life history and is driven by three primary selection pressures: kin selection, resource competition, and inbreeding avoidance (Moore 1992; Lawson Handley and ...

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