Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science

Living Edition
| Editors: Todd K. Shackelford, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford

Apprenticeship

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_1090-1

Synonyms

Definition

A system of training a new generation of practitioners of a trade or profession with on-the-job training and often accompanying study.

As discussed elsewhere in this work (Peedicayil 2018), cultural inheritance involves the storage and transmission of information by communication, imitation, teaching, and learning. In this context, there is evidence that complex social behaviors like human altruism and mate choice (Rushton et al. 1986), social attitudes (Martin et al. 1986), personality (Eaves et al. 1999), and the human sex ratio (Lipatov et al. 2008) are culturally transmitted. The cultural transmission of such behaviors, for obvious reasons, will occur effectively only in an animal species that is social, i.e., where the members live in groups and interact freely with one another. Human beings are the archetype of that type of animal species and the groups they live in are termed societies (Wilson 2000). Indeed, the famous Greek philosopher Aristotle...

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References

  1. Aristotle. (2015). Politics. London: Aeterna Press.Google Scholar
  2. Eaves, L., Heath, A., Martin, N., Maes, H., Neale, M., Kendler, K., et al. (1999). Comparing the biological and cultural inheritance of personality and social attitudes in the Virginia 30,000 study of twins and their relatives. Twin Research, 2, 62–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Lipatov, M., Li, S., & Feldman, M. W. (2008). Economics, cultural transmission, and the dynamics of the sex ratio at birth in China. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 19171–19176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  5. Peedicayil, J. (2018). Cultural inheritance. In T. K. Schackelford & V. A. Schackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of evolutionary psychological science. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  6. Rushton, J. P., Littlefield, C. H., & Lumsden, C. J. (1986). Gene-culture coevolution of complex social behavior: Human altruism and mate choice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 83, 7340–7343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Wikipedia. (2018). Apprenticeship. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apprenticeship. Accessed 12 Feb 2018.
  8. Wilson, E. O. (2000). Sociobiology: The new synthesis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Christian Medical CollegeVelloreIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Menelaos Apostolou
    • 1
  1. 1.University of NicosiaNicosiaCyprus