Advertisement

Functional Effects of Shoes

  • Benedicte Vanwanseele
Reference work entry

Abstract

Shoes are an outer covering for the foot, consisting of a more or less stiff sole and a lighter upper that does not extend above the ankle. Shoes have been worn throughout history to protect the feet from physical trauma and environmental extremes with the oldest known footwear being well-preserved leather shoes dating from around 3500 BC. While protection is the primary purpose of shoes, fashion and style considerations also influence shoe design with functional consequences on the foot and lower limb often neglected or of secondary consideration in shoe design and the purchase of shoes. All shoes have the function to protect against physical trauma. For normal daily footwear that is mainly against wounds while sport shoes have to protect not only the feet but also the joint and musculoskeletal tissue against injuries (acute and overuse injuries). In addition, in specific sports, they are also designed to improve performance (e.g., lightweight spikes). Besides protection, a lot of research has focused on two main functions of the shoe: shock attenuation and rearfoot pronation due to the assumed interaction with the development of musculoskeletal injuries. This chapter will discuss these functions in a broader framework, looking at the function of shoes in relation to loading, foot movement, and performance.

Keywords

Footwear Shock Pronation Motion 

References

  1. Bergmann G, Kniggendorf H, Graichen F, Rohlmann A (1995) Influence of shoes and heel strike on the hip joint. J Biomech 28(7):817–827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Burns J, Crosbie J, Hunt A, Ouvrier R (2005) The effect of pes cavus on foot pain and plantar pressure. Clin Biomech 20:877–882.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2005.03.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cheung RTH, Wong MYM, Ng GYF, Cheung RTH, Wong MYM, Ng GYF (2011) Effects of motion control footwear on running: a systematic review. J Sports Sci 29(12):1311–1219.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2011.591420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Davis I, Milner CE, Hamill J (2004) Does increased loading during running lead to tibial stress fractures? A propective study. Med Sci Sport Exerc 36:S58.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200405001-00271Google Scholar
  5. Fong Yan A, Sinclair PJ, Hiller C et al (2013) Impact attenuation during weight bearing activities in barefoot vs. shod conditions: a systematic review. Gait Posture 38:175–186.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2012.11.017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fredericks W, Swank S, Teisberg M, Hampton B, Ridpath L, Hanna JB (2015) Lower extremity biomechanical relationships with different speeds in traditional, minimalist, and barefoot footwear. J Sports Sci Med 14:276–283, October 2014.Google Scholar
  7. McLean SG, Oh YK, Palmer ML et al (2011) The relationship between anterior tibial acceleration, tibial slope, and ACL strain during a simulated jump landing task. J Bone Joint Surg Am 93:1310–1317.  https://doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.J.00259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Milner CE, Ferber R, Pollard CD et al (2006) Biomechanical factors associated with tibial stress fracture in female runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc 38:323–328.  https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000183477.75808.92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Novacheck TF (1998) The biomechanics of running. Gait Posture 7:77–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Pohl MB, Mullineaux DR, Milner CE et al (2008) Biomechanical predictors of retrospective tibial stress fractures in runners. J Biomech 41:1160–1165.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2008.02.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Shakoor N, Block JA (2006) Walking barefoot decreases loading on the lower extremity joints in knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 54(9):2923–2927.  https://doi.org/10.1002/art.22123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Shakoor N, Lidtke RH, Sengupta M, Fogg LF, Block JA (2008) Effects of specialized footwear on joint loads in osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis Care Res 59(9):1214–1220.  https://doi.org/10.1002/art.24017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Wegener C, Greene A, Burns J, Hunt AE, Vanwanseele B, Smith RM (2015) Human movement science in-shoe multi-segment foot kinematics of children during the propulsive phase of walking and running. Hum Mov Sci 39:200–211.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2014.11.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Vanwanseele B, Stuelcken M, Greene A, Smith R (2014) The effect of external ankle support on knee and ankle joint movement and loading in netball players. J Sci Med Sport 17(5):511–515.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2013.07.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Zifchock RA, Davis I, Higginson J et al (2008) Side-to-side differences in overuse running injury susceptibility: a retrospective study. Hum Mov Sci 27:888–902.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2008.03.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Movement SciencesKU LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  2. 2.Fontys University of Applied SciencesEindhovenThe Netherlands

Section editors and affiliations

  • Sebastian I. Wolf
    • 1
  1. 1.Movement Analysis LaboratoryClinic for Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery; Center for Orthopedics, Trauma Surgery and Spinal Cord Injury;Heidelberg University HospitalHeidelbergGermany

Personalised recommendations