Movement Analysis of the Golf Swing

  • Patria A. Hume
  • J. Keogh
Reference work entry


Golf is popular worldwide. The complex and asymmetrical motion of golf swings, involving substantial forces and ranges of rotational movement, demands good technique if the player is to perform well while avoiding injury. Biomechanical analyzes can help in maximizing distance and accuracy of golf shots, and reducing injury risk, by providing qualitative and quantitative evidence of body angles, joint forces, and muscle activity patterns. We highlight how lab-based biomechanical studies of the golf swing, using 3D videography, force, electromyography, modelling, and robots, have provided key information regarding the golf swing. With recent advances in technology such as isoinertial devices and wearable sensors, much of this knowledge can now be applied on the golf course. Sports biomechanists are now able to assess and provide relatively real-time feedback on golf swing performance. Golf performance outcome measures from a biomechanics perspective may be categorized as direct (ball displacement, shot accuracy) or indirect (clubhead velocity, clubface angle). The magnitude and direction of the linear clubhead velocity at impact is determined by the angular velocity of the clubhead during the swing and the length of the arm–club system. Golfers must develop a consistent fundamental swing pattern to secure these qualities. Proper proximal to distal sequencing of body rotations is important in the production of high-clubhead velocities in the golf swing. The biomechanist must be able to measure golf performance technique and outcome variables reliably and with accuracy/sensitivity so feedback can be given to golfers and coaches on technique improvement.


Golf Clubhead velocity Clubface angle Shot accuracy Kinematics Kinetics Feedback Technique Body kinematics Joint angles Segment velocities Segmental sequencing Inertial sensors Telemetered sensors Real-time feedback Performance Injury prevention 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Auckland University of TechnologyAucklandNew Zealand
  2. 2.Bond University AustraliaRobinaAustralia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Gert-Peter Brüggemann
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Biomechanics and OrthopaedicsGerman Sport University CologneKölnGermany

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