Advertisement

Hydroxy Acids

  • Ediléia BagatinEmail author
  • Lilia Ramos dos Santos Guadanhim
Reference work entry
Part of the Clinical Approaches and Procedures in Cosmetic Dermatology book series (CAPCD, volume 1)

Abstract

Hydroxy acids (HAs) represent useful substances for skin care and chemical peelings and have been used typically in concentrations ranging from 2% to 70%, depending on the indication, pH, formulation, and application schedule. The higher the concentration and the lower the pH of the product, the greater the exfoliative, epidermolytic, and even toxic and corrosive action.

The most widely used hydroxy acids are glycolic, mandelic, and salicylic acids. Recently, other substances like β-lipohydroxy acids (BLHAs) and gluconolactone have been developed in order to enhance efficacy and diminish irritation.

The main effects of hydroxy acids in the skin are hydration, exfoliation, acceleration of collagen synthesis and modulation of matrix degradation, epidermal turnover regulation, inhibition of tyrosinase activity, and free radical neutralization.

The uses of hydroxy acids include the treatment of dry skin, hyperkeratinization, acne, rosacea and sensitive skin, hyperpigmentation, wrinkles, and photoaging, with a high tolerance and good safety profile.

Keywords

Hydroxy acids α-Hydroxy acids AHA Salicylic acid Glycolic acid Bionic acid Polyhydroxy acid β-Hydroxy acids β-Lipohydroxy acid Chemical peels Mandelic acid Gluconolactone Photoaging Hyperpigmentation Acne 

References

  1. Abels C, Kaszuba A, Michalk I, Werdier D, Knie U, Kaszuba A. A 10% glycolic acid containing oil-in water emulsion improves mild acne: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2011;10:202–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Babilas P, Knie U, Abels C. Cosmetic and dermatologic use of alpha hydroxyl acids. J Ger Soc Dermatol. 2012;10:488–91.Google Scholar
  3. Bernstein EF, Underhill CB, Lakkakorpi J, et al. Citric acid increases viable epidermal thickness and glycosaminoglycan content of sun-damaged skin. Dermatol Surg. 1997;23:689–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bernstein EF, Lee J, Brown DB, et al. Glycolic acid treatment increases type I collagen mRNA and hyaluronic acid content of human skin. Dermatol Surg. 2001;27:1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bernstein EF, Brown DB, Schwart MD, et al. The polyhydroxy acid gluconolactone protects against ultraviolet radiation in and in vitro model of cutaneous photoaging. Dermatol Surg. 2004;30:189–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ditre CM, Griffin TD, Murphy GF, et al. Effects of α-hydroxy acids on photoaged skin: a pilot clinical, histologic and ultrastructural study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1996;34:187–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Draelos ZD, Green BA, Edison BL. An evaluation of a polyhydroxy acid skin care regimen in combination with azelaic acid 15% gel in Rosacea patients. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2006;5:23–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Green B. Lactobionic acid. Skin Inc Mag. 2000;12:62–3.Google Scholar
  9. Green B. After 30 years…the future of hydroxyacids. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2005;4:44–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Green BA, Edison BL, Wildnauer RH, Sigler ML. Lactobionic acid and gluconolactone: PHAs for photoaged skin. Cosmet Dermatol. 2001;14:24–8.Google Scholar
  11. Green BA, Yu RJ, Van Scott EJ. Clinical and cosmeceutical uses of hydroxy acids. Clin Dermatol. 2009;27:495–501.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Grimes PE, Green BA, Widnauer RH, Edison BL. The use of polyhydroxy acids (PHAs) in photoaged skin. Cutis. 2004;73(2 Suppl):3–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Grossman K, Matarasso SL. The science of skin care. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002;10:292–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Herrmannn M. Salicylic acid: an old dog, new tricks, and staphylococcal disease. J Clin Invest. 2003;15(3):56–8.Google Scholar
  15. Kakita LS, Green BA. A review of the physical and chemical properties of alpha-hydroxyacids (AHAs) and polyhydroxy acids (PHAs) and their therapeutic use in phamacologics. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;54:AB107.Google Scholar
  16. Kar BR, Tripathy S, Panda M. Comparative study of oral isotretinoin versus oral isotretinoin + 20% salicylic acid peel in the treatment of active acne. Cutan Aesthet Surg. 2013;6(4):204–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kessler E, Flanagan K, Chia C, Rogers C, Glaser DA. Comparison of alpha- and beta-hydroxyacid chemical peels in the treatment of mild to moderately severe facial acne vulgaris. Dermatol Surg. 2008;34:45–50 (discussion 1).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Kim SJ, Won YH. The effect of glycolic acid on cultured human skin fibroblasts: cell proliferative effect and increased collagen synthesis. J Dermatol. 1998;25:85–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Klingman D, Klingman AM. Salicylic acid peels for the treatment of photoaging. Dermatol Surg. 1998;24:325–8.Google Scholar
  20. Kornhauser A, Coelho SG, Hearing VJ. Applications of hydroxy acids: classification, mechanisms, and photoactivity. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2010;3:135–42.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Lavker RM, Kaidbey K, Leyden JJ. Effects of topical ammonium lactate on cutaneous atrophy from a potent topical corticosteroid. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992;26:535–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Newman N, Newman A, Moy LS, Babapour R, Harris AG, Moy RL. Clinical improvement of photoaged skin with 50% glycolic acid. A double-blind vehicle-controlled study. Dermatol Surg. 1996;22:455–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Okano Y, Abe Y, Masaki H, Santhanam U, Ichihashi M, Funasaka Y. Biological effects of glycolic acid on dermal matrix metabolism mediated by dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes. Exp Dermatol. 2003;12 Suppl 2:57–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Petratos MA. Drug Therapies and adjunctive uses of alphahydroxy and polyhydroxy acids. Cutis. 2000;66(2):107–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Piérard GE, Kligman AM, Stoudemayer T, Lévèque JL. Comparative effects of retinoic acid, glycolic acid and a lipophilic derivative of salicylic acid on photodamaged skin. Dermatology. 1999;199:50–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rendl M, Mayer C, Weninger W, Tschachler E. Topically applied lactic acid increases spontaneous secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor by human reconstructed epidermis. Br J Dermatol. 2001;145(1):3–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Rizer R, Turcott A, Edison B, et al. An evaluation of the tolerance profile of a complete line of gluconolactone-containing skin care formulations in atopic individuals. Skin Aging. 2001a;9(suppl):18–21.Google Scholar
  28. Rizer R, Turcott A, Edison B, et al. An evaluation of the tolerance profile of a complete line of gluconolactone-containing skin care in individuals with Rosacea. Skin Aging. 2001b;9(suppl):22–5.Google Scholar
  29. Saint-Léger D, Lévêque JL, Verschoore M. The use of hydroxyl acids on the skin: characteristics of C-8 lipohydroxy acid. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2007;6:59–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Tasic-Kostov M, Savic S, Lukic M, Tamburic S, Pavlovic M, Vuleta G. Lactobionic acid in a natural alkylpolyglucoside-based vehicle: assessing safety and efficacy aspects in comparison to glycolic acid. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2010;9:3–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Tran D, Townley JP, Barnes TM, Greive KA. An antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxyl acids and vitamins improves the biomechanical parameters of facial skin. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2015;8:9–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Usuki A, Ohashi Sato H, Ochiai Y, Funasaka Y. The inhibitory effect of glycolic acid and lactic acid on melanin synthesis in melanoma cells. Exp Dermatol. 2003;12 Suppl 2:43–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Van Scott EJ, Yu RJ. Control of keratinization with α-hydroxyacids and related compounds. Arch Dermatol. 1974;110:586–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Van Scott EJ, Yu RJ. Hyperkeratinization, corneocyte cohesion and alpha hydroxyacids. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1984;11:867–79.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Yu RJ, Van Scott EJ. Salicylic acid: not a b-hydroxy acid. Cosmet Dermatol. 1997;10:27.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ediléia Bagatin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lilia Ramos dos Santos Guadanhim
    • 2
  1. 1.Dermatology DepartmentFederal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP)Sao PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Translational Medicine Post-Graduation ProgramFederal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP)São PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations