Encyclopedia of Engineering Geology

Living Edition
| Editors: Peter Bobrowsky, Brian Marker

Soil Laboratory Tests

  • Binod Tiwari
  • Beena Ajmera
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-12127-7_304-1


Soil laboratory tests involve various experimental methods for the determination of soil properties for engineering design and evaluation. Tests are used to obtain basic soil information such as classification according to classification methods such as Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) , grain size distribution, and plasticity characteristics as well as determining parameters needed for design and evaluation of infrastructure including the coefficient of permeability, compressibility, and shear strength of the soil mass.


The proper design and construction of new infrastructure and evaluation of existing infrastructure greatly depends on the appropriate measurements of the parameters needed in the theoretical and empirical formulations for the problem at hand. One method of determining these parameters is by conducting laboratory soil testing on representative samples obtained from the project site. The procedures for conducting laboratory soil testing...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Ajmera B, Tiwari B, Shrestha D (2012) Effect of mineral composition and shearing rates on the undrained shear strength of expansive clays. Geotech Spec Publ 225:1185–1194Google Scholar
  2. Ajmera B, Brandon T, Tiwari B (2017) Influence of index properties on shape of cyclic strength curve for clay-silt mixtures. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 102:46–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. ASTM D1557-12e1 (2012) Standard test methods for laboratory compaction characteristics of soil using modified effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2700 kN-m/m3)). ASTM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  4. ASTM D2166/D2166M-16 (2016) Standard test method for unconfined compressive strength of cohesive soil. ASTM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  5. ASTM D2434-68 (2006) Standard test method for permeability of granular soils (constant head). ASTM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  6. ASTM D2435/D2435M-11 (2011) Standard test methods for one-dimensional consolidation properties of soils using incremental loading. ASTM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  7. ASTM D2850-15 (2015). Standard test method for unconsolidated-undrained triaxial compression test on cohesive soils. ASTM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  8. ASTM D3080/D3080M-11 (2011) Standard test method for direct shear test of soils under consolidated drained conditions. ASTM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  9. ASTM D422-63 (2007) Standard test method for particle-size analysis of soils. ASTM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  10. ASTM D4318-17 (2017) Standard test methods for liquid limit, plastic limit, and plasticity index of soils. ASTM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  11. ASTM D4767-11 (2011) Standard test method for consolidated undrained triaxial compression test for cohesive soils. ASTM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  12. ASTM D4943-08 (2008) Standard test method for shrinkage factors of soils by wax method. ASTM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  13. ASTM D5084-16a (2016) Standard test methods for measurement of hydraulic conductivity of saturated porous materials using a flexible wall permeameter. ASTM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  14. ASTM D5311/D5311M-13 (2013) Standard test method for load controlled cyclic triaxial strength of soil. ASTM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  15. ASTM D6467-13 (2013) Standard test method for torsional ring shear test to determine drained residual shear strength of cohesive soils. ASTM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  16. ASTM D6528(2017) Standard test method for consolidated undrained direct simple shear testing of fine-grain soils. ASTM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  17. ASTM D698-12e2 (2012) Standard test methods for laboratory compaction characteristics of soil using standard effort (12,400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3)). ASTM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  18. ASTM D7181-11 (2011) Method for consolidated drained triaxial compression test for soils. ASTM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  19. ASTM D854-14 (2014) Standard test methods for specific gravity of soil solids by water pycnometer. ASTM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  20. Tiwari B, Ajmera B (2011a) New correlation equations for compression index of remolded clays. J Geotech Geoenviron 138(6):757–763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Tiwari B, Ajmera B (2011b) A new correlation relating the shear strength of reconstituted soil to the proportions of clay minerals and plasticity characteristics. Appl Clay Sci 53(1):48–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Tiwari B, Principe M, Biabani M (2014) Influence of activity and mineralogy in compaction and shear strength characteristics of clay. Geotech Spec Publ 234:1357–1366Google Scholar
  23. Tiwari B, Pradel D, Ajmera B, Yamashiro B, Diwakar K (2018) Case study: numerical analysis of landslide movement at Lokanthali during the Mw = 7.8 2015 Gorkha (Nepal) Earthquake. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 144(3):05018001Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.California State UniversityFullertonUSA