International Space Station (ISS) Exercise Countermeasures
Countermeasure is a broad term used to describe physical modes, psychological support, and nutritional and pharmacological approaches taken to maintain the health and functional status of spaceflight crewmembers during their missions.
Long-duration spaceflight (LDS) results in musculoskeletal, cardiorespiratory, and sensorimotor deconditioning. Historically, exercise has been used as a physical countermeasure to mitigate deleterious effects that occur as a consequence of microgravity exposures. Standardized medical evaluations before, during, and after each mission have been utilized to determine the efficacy of these countermeasures.
Astronaut and cosmonaut fitness affects safety and the success of their tasks in space. The ultimate equipment and protocols that are being employed have evolved through lengthy negotiations and establishment of system requirements. Cultural differences had to be considered in conjunction with lessons learned, evidence-based...