Human Space Flight Mishaps and Incidents: An Overview
Human spaceflight mishaps and incidents pertain to crew and spacecraft threats and events that can occur in all phases of spaceflight, from prelaunch to ascent, through in-flight mission activities, to reentry and post-landing.
Human spaceflight is extremely risky. Threats to crew health have occurred during every phase of a mission, including prelaunch, launch and ascent, on-orbit, reentry and landing, and post-landing. Spaceflight-related human health threats include the space environment (microgravity, vacuum, and radiation), spacecraft environment (noise, closed life support), and mission (circadian disruption, sleep deprivation) effects. Humans exhibit considerable adaptive responses, such as neurovestibular, musculoskeletal, and cardiovascular changes to microgravity. The spacecraft environment as well can expose crew to toxins and other hazardous materials. Confinement, isolation, and intense workload have created psychosocial adaptation issues.
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