Gamification is the intentional application of game elements to nongame contexts, with the intention of creating playful experiences or gameful interaction. It is often used to motivate and increase user activity or user retention.
A synthesis by Seaborn and Fels (2015, p. 17) that considers seminal works on gamification (Deterding et al. 2011; Huotari and Hamari 2012) defines gamification as the “intentional use of game elements for a gameful experience of non-game tasks and contexts.” In this gamification is different from serious games, which involve the use of full games in serious, nongame contexts.
Gamification has been used to increase engagement in education (Auvinen et al. 2015), compliance and satisfaction in healthcare (Stinson et al. 2013), user activity in sharing economy (Hamari 2017), and quality and performance in crowdsourcing (Liu et al. 2011; Massung et al. 2013). Currently most...
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