Pediatric Cardiologist and the Infant or Child before Heart Transplantation

  • Michael A. McCulloch
  • Ryan R. Davies
Reference work entry
Part of the Organ and Tissue Transplantation book series (OTT)


Identifying and defining heart failure in the pediatric population is a challenge unique from that in the adult. Continuously changing developmental stages overlaid on a wide array of cardiomyopathies and congenital heart defects frequently result in the late recognition and treatment of heart failure in infants and children. Delayed diagnosis often results in children being beyond the point where medical or surgical management might mitigate further decline, leading to more difficult options: heart transplantation, mechanical circulatory support, or withdrawal of care. This section provides guidelines to nontransplantation pediatric cardiologists for the timely diagnosis and referral of pediatric patients with heart failure associated with biventricular or single ventricle anatomy, as well as associated diseases such as muscular dystrophy or cancer.


Pediatric Congenital heart disease Cardiomyopathy Single ventricle Heart failure Heart transplantation Allosensitization Muscular dystrophy Pulmonary hypertension 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pediatric CardiologyUniversity of Virginia Children’s Hospital Heart CenterCharlottesvilleUSA
  2. 2.University of Texas Southwestern Medical CenterDallasUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • J Jeffrey Malatack
    • 1
  1. 1.Diagnostic Referral DivisionNemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for ChildrenWilmingtonUSA

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