Growth and Development with End Organ Failure

  • Chris Raab
Reference work entry
Part of the Organ and Tissue Transplantation book series (OTT)


Early childhood growth and development contribute meaningfully to the quality of health and well-being across the child’s life span. Due to the vulnerabilities of a young child, alterations in health such as those brought on by significant illness usually have a great effect on a child’s growth and development and their subsequent life. The least complex yet remarkably accurate means of assessing a child’s growth may be determined by measuring height, weight, and head circumference. When compared to norms for age and sex, these three metrics are excellent indicators of health. Furthermore, a child’s ability to reach their developmental milestones is an excellent indicator of normal pediatric cognition.

Both growth and development suffer during organ failure. As growth and development are uniquely important to the pediatric population, care and attention must be paid to these issues. Poor nutrition as well as factors specific to each failing organ can cause significant growth impairment. Likewise, the social isolation of chronic illness including frequent hospitalization can lead to developmental delay. While organ transplantation addresses the anatomic or physiologic problems of end-stage organ failure, growth and development recovery may lag significantly behind and may fail to return fully to normal values. Attention to growth and development must be in the forefront of the care of children with end-stage organ failure prior to transplantation. Shortening the duration of end organ failure to the extent possible is an important strategy that will avoid or decrease the devastating impact that organ failure has on growth and development.


End-stage liver disease End-stage renal disease Intestinal failure Heart failure Growth parameters Development 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.WilmingtonUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • J Jeffrey Malatack
    • 1
  1. 1.Diagnostic Referral DivisionNemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for ChildrenWilmingtonUSA

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