Advertisement

The Infant or Child as a Transplantation Candidate

  • J. Jeffrey Malatack
Reference work entry
Part of the Organ and Tissue Transplantation book series (OTT)

Abstract

The often quoted medical aphorism “A child is not simply a small adult” is most applicable when the setting is the child or infant as a solid organ transplantation candidate. The pediatric transplantation candidate, similar to the adult, must deal with the life-threatening issues of critical organ failure but also, and unlike the adult, must continue moving through the progression of child development at that same time. It is a multitasking effort to the nth degree, and not surprisingly even when the child sails through the medical rigors of transplantation, all may still turn out far from optimal. In the following chapter, we will focus on the transition of the child or infant from diagnosis of a chronic disease through candidacy for organ transplantation to becoming an organ recipient.

Keywords

PT (prothrombin time) INR (international normalization ratio) PN (parenteral nutrition) Immunosuppression Transplantation waiting list LRT (living-related transplantation) 

References

  1. Abuali MM, Arnon R, Posada R (2011) An update on immunization before and after transplantation in the pediatric solid organ transplant recipient. Pediatr Transplant 15:770–777CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alayli G, Ozkaya O, Bek K et al (2008) Physical function, muscle strength and muscle mass in children on peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 2008(23):639–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Almond CSD, Thiagarajan RR, Piercey GE, Gauvreau K, Blume ED, Bastardi HJ, Fynn-Thompson F, Singh TP (2009) Waiting list mortality among children listed for heart transplantation in the United States. Circulation 119(5):717–727.  https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.815712
  4. Anthony SJ, Annunziato RA, Fairey E et al (2014) Waiting for transplant: physical psychosocial, and nutritional status consideration for pediatric candidates and implication for care. Pediatr Transplant 2014(13):423–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. CDC (2010) Update: mumps outbreak - New York and New Jersey, June 2009-January 2010. MMWR 59(5):125–129Google Scholar
  6. Craig G, Scambler G, Spitz L (2003) Why parents of children with neurodevelopmental disabilities requiring gastrostomy feeding need more support. Dev Med Child Neurol 45:183–188CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Desai MS, Zainuer S, Kennedy C et al (2011) Cardiac structural and functional alterations in infants and children with biliary atresia, listed for liver transplantation. Gastroenterology 141:1264–1272CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Dew M, Switzer G, DiMartini AF et al (2004) Psychosocial assessments and outcomes in organ transplantation. Prog Transplant 2004(23):1103–1110Google Scholar
  9. Franklin L, Rodger S (2003) Parent’s perspective on feeding medically compromised children: implications for occupational therapy. Aust Occcup Ther J 50:137–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Halasa N, Green M (2008) Immunizations and infectious diseases in e pediatric liver transplantation. Liver Transpl 14:1389–1399Google Scholar
  11. Hanton LB (1998) Caring for children awaiting heart transplantation: psychosocial implication. Pediatr Nurs 24:214–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Lefkowitz DS, Fitzgerald CJ, Zelikovsky N, Barlow K, Wray J (2014) Best practices in the pediatric pretransplant psychosocial evaluation. Pediatr Transplant 18(4):327–335.  https://doi.org/10.1111/petr.12260 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Measles Outbreak-Hennepen County Minnesota (2011) MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 60(13):421Google Scholar
  14. Mokkink LB, van der Lee JH, Grootenhuis MD et al (2008) Defining chronic disease and health conditions in childhood (0–18yrs of age): national consensus in the Netherlands. Eur J Pediatr 2008(167):1441–1447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Outbreaks of Measels- San Diego California (2008) MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 57:1–4Google Scholar
  16. Painter P, Krasnoff J, Mathias R (2007) Exercise capacity and physical fitness in pediatric dialysis and kidney transplantation patients. Pediatr Nephrol 2007(22):1030–1039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Paridon SM, Mitchell PD, Colan SD et al (2008) A cross- sectional study of exercise performance during the first 2 decades of life after a Fontan operation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008(52):99–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Protheroe SM (1998) Feeding the child with chronic liver disease. Nutrition 1998(14):796–780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rees L, Jones H (2013) Nutritional management and growth in children with chronic kidney disease. Pediatr Nephrol 2013(28):527–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Serrano-Ikkos E, Lask B, Whitehead B et al (1997) Psychosocial morbidity in children and their families awaiting heart or heart lung transplantation. J Psychosom Res 1997(42):253–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Shellmer D, Borsig C, Wray J (2014) The start of the transplant journey: referral for pediatric solid organ transplantation. Pediatr Transplant 18:125–133CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Update mumps outbreak – New York and New Jersey (2010) MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 59(05):125–129Google Scholar
  23. Yeo M, Sawyer S (2005) Chronic illness and disability. In: Viner R (ed) ABC of adolescence. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  24. Young S, Kwarta E, Azzam R et al (2013) Nutrition assessment and support in children with end stage liver disease. Nutr Clin Prac 28:317CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for ChildrenWilmingtonUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • J Jeffrey Malatack
    • 1
  1. 1.Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for ChildrenWilmingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations