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Magnetic Semiconductors

  • Karl W. Böer
  • Udo W. PohlEmail author
Living reference work entry

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Abstract

Magnetic properties are introduced into solids by paramagnetic ions. These are transition-metal ions of the iron series with a partially filled electronic 3d shell or rare-earth ions of the lanthanide series with an incomplete 4f shell. In magnetic semiconductors, they represent a cation component of the crystal, while in diluted magnetic semiconductors, they are a substitutional alloy component on the cation sublattice. The magnetic moments of the paramagnetic ions are coupled by different kinds of exchange interactions. Superexchange mediated by p states of anion ligands favors antiferromagnetism with antiparallel alignment of the magnetic moments, while double exchange and p–d exchange favor ferromagnetism with parallel alignment. Magnetic ordering is disturbed if the thermal energy exceeds the exchange energy; critical Curie and Néel temperatures exist for the transition from the paramagnetic high-temperature range to magnetically ordered respective ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic regimes at lower temperature.

Keywords

Antiferromagnetism Curie temperature Diluted magnetic semiconductors Double exchange Exchange interactions Ferromagnetism Magnetic moments Magnetic properties Magnetic semiconductors Néel temperature Paramagnetic ions P–d exchange Rare-earth ions Superexchange Transition-metal ions 

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NaplesUSA
  2. 2.Institut für Festkörperphysik, EW5-1Technische Universität BerlinBerlinGermany

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