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Carrier Recombination and Noise

  • Karl W. Böer
  • Udo W. PohlEmail author
Living reference work entry

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Abstract

In steady state, for each act of carrier generation or excitation there must be one inverse process of recombination or relaxation. Carriers can return immediately or after scattering to their original state, or they can recombine radiatively or nonradiatively with another state.

Nonradiative recombination is almost always defect-center controlled; it releases energy in the form of phonons, or in Auger recombination, by accelerating another electron. Phonon emission occurs as a single-phonon process when trapping a carrier at a shallow defect center, or as a multiphonon emission when recombination occurs at a deep center. In carrier traps, which are located close to one band, excitation into the adjacent band and trapping at the center dominate, while in recombination centers, which are located closer to the center of the bandgap, carriers recombine from one band to the other. The capture cross-section of defect centers spread over more than 12 orders of magnitude.

Radiative recombination proceeds as an emission delayed by the lifetime of an excited state and changed in energy after relaxation of the excited state. The spectral distribution of the luminescence is related to the electronic structure of the semiconductor and its defects. The sharp low-temperature spectra of shallow-level defects in pure crystals are well understood, while the assignment of the broad emissions of deep defects with strong lattice coupling is usually difficult.

The random fluctuation of individual carrier motion and carrier generation-recombination creates noise. Equilibrium noise is caused by the Brownian motion of carriers and independent of the frequency. Nonequilibrium noise is generated upon optical excitation or current injection and has usually a typical 1/f frequency dependence. It is composed of various contributions; a fundamental part originates from energy loss by low-frequency bremsstrahlung in basically elastic scattering processes. Noise creates a lower limit for signal detection.

Keywords

1/f noise Auger recombination Band-to-band recombination Bound-exciton luminescence Capture cross-section Electron-lattice coupling Equilibrium noise Extrinsic luminescence Geminate recombination Generation-recombination noise Luminescence Luminescence centers Near-band-edge emission Noise Nonequilibrium noise Nonradiative recombination Phosphors Radiative recombination Recombination Recombination centers Recombination coefficient Recombination cross-section Shockley-Read-Hall center Shot noise Spontaneous emission Stimulated emission Thermal noise Thermal radiation Trap 

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NaplesUSA
  2. 2.Institut für Festkörperphysik, EW5-1Technische Universität BerlinBerlinGermany

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