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Properties and Growth of Semiconductors

  • Karl W. Böer
  • Udo W. PohlEmail author
Living reference work entry

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Abstract

Semiconductor physics and devices have emerged from early studies on the conductivity of metal sulfides in the nineteenth century and experienced a strong progress since the middle of the twentieth century. This introductive chapter briefly highlights a couple of historic milestones and illustrates some general properties of semiconductors. Then the fabrication of semiconductors is described, pointing out the driving force of crystal growth, thermodynamics, and kinetics of nucleation and the occurrence of different growth modes. Various methods for growing bulk single crystals from the liquid and the vapor phase are introduced, and the techniques of liquid-phase epitaxy, molecular-beam epitaxy, and metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy for the fabrication of thin layers and sharp interfaces are pointed out.

Keywords

Bridgman growth Crystal growth Czochralski growth Driving force of growth Epitaxy General properties of semiconductors Growth kinetics Growth modes Nucleation Liquid-phase epitaxy Metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy Molecular-beam epitaxy Nucleation Semiconductor history Supersaturation 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NaplesUSA
  2. 2.Institut für Festkörperphysik, EW5-1Technische Universität BerlinBerlinGermany

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