Encyclopedia of Renaissance Philosophy

Living Edition
| Editors: Marco Sgarbi

Grote, Geert

Born: October 1340
Died: 20 August 1384
  • Rijcklof HofmanEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02848-4_555-1


Geert Grote was the founder of the late medieval religious reform movement Devotio moderna. He lived in the second half of the fourteenth century and was known especially for his criticism of the higher clergy and his preaching activities which incited his audiences to lead a more sincere religious life. Through the three branches of followers together forming the Devotio moderna, he paved the way for a more critical approach to practices in the church during the later Middle Ages and beyond.


Religious Life Corrupt Practice Common Life Church Official Prayer Book 
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Primary Literature

  1. A scientific edition of Grote’s literary legacy is currently being prepared, of which four volumes have been published already; older editions are listed in the two biographies listed below (Épiney-Burgard 1970; Van Zijl 1963).Google Scholar
  2. Magnus, Gerardus. 2000. Ioannis Rusbrochii Ornatus spiritualis desponsationis Gerardo Magno interprete. In Gerardi Magni Opera Omnia, Pars V.1, Corpus Christianorum, Continuatio Mediaeualis, vol. 172, ed. R. Hofman. Turnhout: Brepols.Google Scholar
  3. Magnus, Gerardus. 2003. Contra turrim Traiectensem. In Gerardi Magni Opera Omnia, Pars I, Corpus Christianorum, Continuatio Mediaeualis, vol. 192, ed. R. Hofman, 745–814. Turnhout: Brepols.Google Scholar
  4. Magnus, Gerardus. 2011. Sermo ad clerum Traiectensem de focaristis – Opera minora contra focaristas. In Gerardi Magni Opera Omnia, Pars II.1, Corpus Christianorum, Continuatio Mediaeualis, vol. 235, ed. R. Hofman. Turnhout: Brepols.Google Scholar
  5. Magnus, Gerardus. 2016. Scripta contra simoniam et proprietarios. In Gerardi Magni Opera Omnia, Pars II.2, Corpus Christianorum, Continuatio Mediaeualis, vol. 235A, cura et studio Rijcklof Hofman adiuuante Marinus van den Berg. Turnhout: Brepols.Google Scholar

Secondary Literature

  1. Van Dijk, R.Th.M. 2003. Prolegomena ad Gerardi Magni Opera Omnia. Pars I,1. Die Forschungslage des gesamten Schrifttums (mit Ausnahme des Stundenbuches). In Gerardi Magni Opera Omnia, vol. I, Corpus Christianorum, Continuatio Mediaeualis, vol. 192. Turnhout: Brepols.Google Scholar
  2. Van Engen, H. 2006. De derde orde van Sint-Franciscus in het middeleeuwse bisdom Utrecht. Een bijdrage tot de institutionele geschiedenis van de Moderne Devotie. Hilversum: Verloren.Google Scholar
  3. Van Engen, J. 2008. Sisters and brothers of the common life. The devotio moderna and the world of the later middle ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  4. Épiney-Burgard, G. 1970. Gérard Grote (1340–1384) et les débuts de la dévotion moderne. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag.Google Scholar
  5. Hofman, R. 2003. Geert Grote’s treatise contra turrim Traiectensem and his conversion to a spiritually oriented life. In Spirituality renewed, Studies in spirituality supplements, vol. 10, ed. C. Caspers, R. Hofman, H. Blommestijn, 41–55. Leuven: Peeters.Google Scholar
  6. Klausmann, Th. 2003. Consuetudo consuetudine vincitur. Die Hausordnungen der Brüder vom gemeinsamen Leben im Bildungs- und Sozialisationsprogramm der Devotio moderna. Frankfurt am Main etc.: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  7. Kohl, W., E. Persoons, and A.G. Weiler, ed. 1976–1984. Monasticon Windeshemense, Archives et Bibliothèques de Belgique, Extranummer, vol. 16, 1–4. Brussels: Archief- en Bibliotheekwezen.Google Scholar
  8. Van Wijk, N. 1940. Het getijdenboek van Geert Grote. Naar het Haagse handschrift 133 E 21 uitgegeven. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  9. Van Zijl, T.P. 1963. Gerard Groote, ascetic and reformer (1340–1384). Washington, DC: The Catholic University of America Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Titus Brandsma InstituutRadboud UniversityNijmegenThe Netherlands

Section editors and affiliations

  • Paul Richard Blum
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyLoyola University MarylandBaltimoreUSA