2020 Edition
| Editors: Maria Rosaria Raspollini, Antonio Lopez-Beltran

Melanoma, Genitourinary Tract

  • Francesca PortelliEmail author
  • Chiara Trambaiolo Antonelli
  • Vincenzo De Giorgi
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-41894-6_5010


Malignant melanoma


Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes which may involve primarily or secondarily the urogenital tract. In the urinary tract, the criteria to be met to classify a melanoma as primary are no other previous or concomitant skin melanoma, no evidence of regressed melanoma, and a recurrence pattern consistent with the primary tumor diagnosis. Melanomas arising on the penile shaft skin are classified as cutaneous, whereas those occurring on the glans, meatus, corona, inner prepuce, or urethra are mucosal melanomas.

Clinical Features

  • Incidence

    Primary melanomas of the genitourinary tract account for less than 1% of all melanomas (El-Safadi et al. 2014). In the urinary tract, metastatic melanoma is more frequently encountered than primary melanoma. Primary melanoma is more common in the urethra with approximately 150 reported cases (El-Safadi et al. 2014). In the bladder less than 50 cases of primary melanomas (Venyo 2014) and approximately 24 of...

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References and Further Reading

  1. El-Safadi, S., Estel, R., Mayser, P., & Muenstedt, K. (2014). Primary malignant melanoma of the urethra: A systematic analysis of the current literature. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 289, 935–943.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Liapis, G., Sarlanis, H., Poulaki, E., Stravodimos, K., Riccioni, O., & Lazaris, A. C. (2016). Primary malignant melanoma of renal pelvis with extensive clear cell change. Cureus, 8, e583.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Meunier, R., Pareek, G., & Amin, A. (2015). Metastasis of malignant melanoma to urinary bladder: A case report and review of the literature. Case Reports in Pathology, 2015, 173870.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Papes, D., Altarac, S., Arslani, N., Rajkovic, Z., Antabak, A., & Cacic, M. (2014). Melanoma of the glans penis and urethra. Urology, 83, 6–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Tosev, G., Kuru, T. H., Huber, J., Freier, G., Bergmann, F., Hassel, J. C., Pahernik, S. A., Hohenfellner, M., & Hadaschik, B. A. (2015). Primary melanoma of the prostate: Case report and review of the literature. BMC Urology, 15, 68.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Venyo, A. K. (2014). Melanoma of the urinary bladder: A review of the literature. Surgery Research and Practice, 2014, 605802.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francesca Portelli
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chiara Trambaiolo Antonelli
    • 2
  • Vincenzo De Giorgi
    • 3
  1. 1.Section of Anatomical Pathology, Department of Health SciencesAzienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, University of FlorenceFlorenceItaly
  2. 2.Departments of Anatomical Pathology and of Oncology, Ospedale Policlinico San MartinoUniversity of GenoaGenoaItaly
  3. 3.Dermatologic ClinicUniversity of FlorenceFlorenceItaly