2020 Edition
| Editors: Maria Rosaria Raspollini, Antonio Lopez-Beltran

Malakoplakia, Genitourinary Tract

  • Maria Rosaria RaspolliniEmail author
  • Antonio Lopez-Beltran
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-41894-6_5009


Soft yellow plaque


It is an inflammatory lesion resulting in histiocytic accumulation, which is related to impaired intraphagosomal digestion.

Clinical Features

  • Incidence

    Uncommon lesion associated with E. Coli bacterial infection. It may be related to concurrent acute inflammation and immunosuppression (Long and Althausen 1989).

  • Age

    The peak incidence is in the fifth decade, with only anecdotal cases described in children (Krauel et al. 2009).

  • Sex

    Female/male – 3:1

  • Site

    The urinary bladder is the most common location of malakoplakia in the genitourinary organs. Rare locations of the disease include the renal pelvis and ureter and the renal parenchyma (Trillo et al. 1977). Epididymis may be involved, as may also be seen in the prostate, with less than 50 reported cases (Wagner et al. 2007).

  • Treatment

    Localized or radical resection may be necessary together with adjuvant antibiotic therapy. The uncommon ureteric malakoplakia may cause obstruction and hydronephrosis.

  • Outcome...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Krauel, L., García-Aparicio, L., Pérez, N., et al. (2009). Urinary and gastrointestinal malakoplakia in a 12-year-old girl. Urology, 73, 87–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Long, J. P., Jr., & Althausen, A. F. (1989). Malacoplakia: A 25 years experience with a review of the literature. The Journal of Urology, 141, 1328–1331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Trillo, A., Lorentz, W. B., Whitley, N. O., et al. (1977). Malakoplakia of kidney simulating renal neoplasm. Urology, 10, 472–477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Wagner, D., Joseph, J., Huang, J., et al. (2007). Malacoplakia of the prostate on needle core biopsy: A case report and review of the literature. International Journal of Surgical Pathology, 15, 86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Rosaria Raspollini
    • 1
    Email author
  • Antonio Lopez-Beltran
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Histopathology and Molecular DiagnosticsUniversity Hospital CareggiFlorenceItaly
  2. 2.Pathology ServiceChampalimaud Clinical CenterLisbonPortugal
  3. 3.Unit of Anatomic Pathology, Department of SurgeryCordoba University Medical SchoolCordobaSpain