2020 Edition
| Editors: Maria Rosaria Raspollini, Antonio Lopez-Beltran


  • Alessandro FranchiEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-41894-6_5004


Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a sarcoma with smooth muscle differentiation.

Clinical Features

  • Incidence

    LMS is the most common genitourinary sarcoma in adults, but it is still rare, accounting for less than 1% of all malignant tumors at these sites.

  • Age

    It occurs in adult and elderly patients. The mean age at diagnosis is 60 years.

  • Sex

    A male predominance has been reported in bladder and a female predominance in the kidney.

  • Site

    Genitourinary LMS arise more frequently in the kidney and the bladder, while only rare cases have been reported in the prostate, the ureter, the spermatic cord, the testis, the penis, and the scrotum.

  • Treatment

    Surgery is the primary treatment, but adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy may also be employed in selected cases.

  • Outcome

    LMS is an aggressive tumor with a high rate of distant metastasis and poor survival.


LMSs are usually large tumors, macroscopically well circumscribed, with a white-tan cut surface, often with areas of hemorrhage...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Martin, S., Sears, D., Sebo, T., et al. (2002). Smooth muscle neoplasms of the urinary bladder: A clinicopathologic comparison of leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 26, 292–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Miller, J. S., Zhou, M., Brimo, F., Guo, C. C., & Epstein, J. I. (2010). Primary leiomyosarcoma of the kidney: A clinicopathologic study of 27 cases. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 34, 238–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Mills, S. E., Bova, G. S., Wick, M. R., et al. (1989). Leiomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder. A clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 15 cases. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 13, 480–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Venyo, A. K. (2015). A review of the literature on primary Leiomyosarcoma of the prostate gland. Advances in Urology, 2015, 485786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Translational Research and of New Technologies in Medicine and SurgeryUniversity of PisaPisaItaly