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Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a sarcoma with smooth muscle differentiation.
LMS is the most common genitourinary sarcoma in adults, but it is still rare, accounting for less than 1% of all malignant tumors at these sites.
It occurs in adult and elderly patients. The mean age at diagnosis is 60 years.
A male predominance has been reported in bladder and a female predominance in the kidney.
Genitourinary LMS arise more frequently in the kidney and the bladder, while only rare cases have been reported in the prostate, the ureter, the spermatic cord, the testis, the penis, and the scrotum.
Surgery is the primary treatment, but adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy may also be employed in selected cases.
LMS is an aggressive tumor with a high rate of distant metastasis and poor survival.
LMSs are usually large tumors, macroscopically well circumscribed, with a white-tan cut surface, often with areas of hemorrhage...