2020 Edition
| Editors: Maria Rosaria Raspollini, Antonio Lopez-Beltran

Schistosomiasis of the Bladder

  • Antonio Galzerano
  • Antonio Lopez-Beltran
  • Maria Rosaria RaspolliniEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-41894-6_4932


Bilharziasis; Schistosomal disease of the urinary bladder


Chronic disease due to Schistosoma haematobium

Clinical Features

  • Incidence

    In Africa and Eastern Mediterranean, the infection with Schistosoma haematobium affects large percentage of the people.

  • Age

    Young people in endemic areas

  • Sex

    Male/female ratio is 4:1.

  • Site

    The involvement of different urogenital organs may occur; the urinary bladder is more frequently affected (Zahran et al. 1976), but can be seen in the prostate and seminal vesicles also.

  • Treatment

    Anti-helminth drugs. Ulcerations may require partial cystectomy.

  • Outcome

    It is a chronic disease. It causes non-specific symptoms with dysuria, pain, and eventually voiding alterations. It may cause, if untreated, pyelonephritis and hydronephrosis and a high incidence of squamous cell carcinoma but also urothelial carcinoma and more rarely adenocarcinoma. Complications, such as ulceration, may occur during inactive phase of disease.



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References and Further Reading

  1. Almeida, M., Canas-Marques, R., Lopez-Beltran, A., et al. (2014). Small cell carcinoma of the bladder associated with schistosomiasis: A case report. Analytical and Quantitative Cytopathology and Histopathology, 36, 339–344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Zahran, M. M., Kamel, M., Mooro, H., & Issa, A. (1976). Bilharziasis of urinary bladder and ureter: Comparative histopathologic study. Urology, 8, 73–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antonio Galzerano
    • 1
  • Antonio Lopez-Beltran
    • 1
    • 2
  • Maria Rosaria Raspollini
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Pathology ServiceChampalimaud Clinical CenterLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.Unit of Anatomic Pathology, Department of SurgeryCordoba University Medical SchoolCordobaSpain
  3. 3.Histopathology and Molecular DiagnosticsUniversity Hospital CareggiFlorenceItaly