2020 Edition
| Editors: Maria Rosaria Raspollini, Antonio Lopez-Beltran

Mucinous Metaplasia

  • Vanessa Henriques
  • Maria Rosaria Raspollini
  • Antonio Lopez-BeltranEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-41894-6_4850


Intestinal metaplasia of the urothelial mucosa


Mucinous metaplasia of the bladder is the replacement of the normal transitional type of epithelial lining by intestinal type of epithelium.

Clinical Features

  • Incidence

    Mucinous metaplasia is a common lesion correlated to mechanical and chronic irritations, such as found in neurogenic bladders, long-term catheterized patients, lithiasis, and bladder exstrophy (Rubenwolf et al. 2013; Gordetsky and Epstein 2015). These etiological factors are a common with cystitis glandularis.

  • Age

    It is more common in elderly patients but may occur in pediatric age.

  • Sex

    It is a common finding in both sexes.

  • Site

    It is more common in the bladder; moreover, it may occur in renal pelvis and ureter.

  • Treatment

    It is not required.

  • Outcome

    It is a benign lesion. However, because of high frequency of coexistence of mucinous metaplasia and adenocarcinoma, it was thought mucinous metaplasia could be a precursor of primary bladder adenocarcinoma...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Corica, F. A., Husmann, D. A., Churchill, B. M., et al. (1997). Intestinal metaplasia is not a strong risk factor for bladder cancer: Study of 53 cases with long-term follow-up. Urology, 50, 427–431.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Gordetsky, J., & Epstein, J. I. (2015). Intestinal metaplasia of the bladder with dysplasia: A risk factor for carcinoma? Histopathology, 67, 325–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Morton, M. J., Zhang, S., Lopez-Beltran, A., et al. (2007). Telomere shortening and chromosomal abnormalities in intestinal metaplasia of the urinary bladder. Clinical Cancer Research, 13, 6232–6236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Rubenwolf, P. C., Eder, F., Ebert, A. K., et al. (2013). Persistent histological changes in the exstrophic bladder after primary closure-a cause for concern? The Journal of Urology, 189, 671–677.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Smith, A. K., Hansel, D. E., & Jones, J. S. (2007). Role of cystitis Cystica et Glandularis and intestinal metaplasia in development of bladder carcinoma. Urology, 71, 915–918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Smith, A. K., Hansel, D. E., & Jones, J. S. (2008). Role of cystitis cystica et glandularis and intestinal metaplasia in development of bladder carcinoma. Urology, 71, 915–918.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Srivastava, S., Yan, B., Chin, Y. S., et al. (2012). Nuclear p53 expression is associated with allelic imbalance (TP53) in glandular dysplasia and typical cystitis glandularis: A LCM-based molecular analysis. Clinical Genitourinary Cancer, 10, 57–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Sung, M. T., Lopez-Beltran, A., Eble, J. N., et al. (2006). Divergent pathway of intestinal metaplasia and cystitis glandularis of the urinary bladder. Modern Pathology, 19, 1395–1401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vanessa Henriques
    • 1
  • Maria Rosaria Raspollini
    • 2
  • Antonio Lopez-Beltran
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Pathology ServiceChampalimaud Clinical CenterLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.Histopathology and Molecular DiagnosticsUniversity Hospital CareggiFlorenceItaly
  3. 3.Unit of Anatomic Pathology, Department of SurgeryCordoba University Medical SchoolCordobaSpain