2020 Edition
| Editors: Maria Rosaria Raspollini, Antonio Lopez-Beltran

Mixed Teratoma and Yolk Sac Tumor, Prepubertal Type

  • Maurizio ColecchiaEmail author
  • Alessia Bertolotti
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-41894-6_4849


Prepubertal-type mixed non-seminoma; Type I germ cell tumor of the testis


A germ cell tumor not associated with GCNIS or 12 amplification with morphological features of prepubertal-type teratoma and prepubertal-type yolk sac tumor.

Clinical Features

  • Incidence

    These tumors are rare occurring less than one tenth as common as prepubertal-type yolk sac tumors with an estimated incidence of 2–3 cases per 10 million children. Most of these tumors occur as lumps discovered by the parents or patients, with most common presentation occurring as a painless scrotal mass (Nistal and González-Peramato 2016).

  • Age

    It occurs among 0–5-year-old children.

  • Sex


  • Site


  • Treatment


  • Outcome

    Mixed prepubertal-type GCTs have the same excellent prognosis as prepubertal-type YST, with a survival of 100%.


The tumors are solid, yellow to tan, with foci of cystic changes filled with keratinous or mucoid material, showing calcification or bone formation.


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References and Further Reading

  1. Nistal, M., & González-Peramato, P. (2016). Germ cell tumors of infancy and childhood. In Pathology of testicular and penile neoplasms (pp. 69–89). Cham: Springer International Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Oosterhuis, J. W., Stoop, J. A., Rijlaarsdam, M. A., Biermann, K., Smit, V. T., Hersmus, R., & Looijenga, L. H. (2015). Pediatric germ cell tumors presenting beyond childhood? Andrology, 3(1), 70–77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ulbright, T. M., & Young, R. H. (2014). Testicular and paratesticular tumors and tumor-like lesions in the first 2 decades. Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology, 31(5), 323–381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Uropathology Unit, Department of PathologyFondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di MilanoMilanItaly
  2. 2.Department of PathologyFondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di MilanoMilanItaly