2020 Edition
| Editors: Maria Rosaria Raspollini, Antonio Lopez-Beltran

Mixed and Unclassified Sex Cord-Stromal Tumors of the Testis

  • Maurizio ColecchiaEmail author
  • Alessia Bertolotti
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-41894-6_4848


Mixed and unclassified sex cord-stromal tumors are neoplasms with indeterminate differentiation or containing randomly mixed Leydig, Sertoli, and granulosa cells. Although mixed and unclassified are listed separately by the WHO 2016 classification, many experts argue that they can hardly be distinguished from each other.

Clinical Features

  • Incidence

    Both tumors are rare.

  • Age

    They occur in middle-aged to elderly men occurring as testicular swelling. Approximately, one-third of cases, however, present in children (Ulbright and Young 2013; Roth et al. 2017).

  • Sex


  • Site


  • Treatment


  • Outcome

    Occasional tumors in each category may be malignant.


Grossly the tumor is well circumscribed and yellowish white.


The unclassified tumors have variable component of epithelial cells of sex cord type with pattern that do not address to subclassification as Sertoli or Leydig or granulosa cell tumor (Fig. 1). Mixed forms have recognizable subtypes in...
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Further Reading

  1. Renshaw, A. A., Gordon, M., & Corless, C. L. (1997). Immunohistochemistry of unclassified sex cord-stromal tumors of the testis with a predominance of spindle cells. Modern Pathology, 10(7), 693–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Roth, L. M., Lyu, B., & Cheng, L. (2017). Perspectives on testicular sex cord-stromal tumors and those composed of both germ cells and sex cord-stromal derivatives with a comparison to corresponding ovarian neoplasms. Human Pathology, 65, 1–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ulbright, T. M., & Young, R. H. (2013). Tumors of the testis and adjacent structures. Silver Spring: American Registry of Pathology.Google Scholar
  4. Ulbright, T. M., Srigley, J. R., Reuter, V. E., Wojno, K., Roth, L. M., & Young, R. H. (2000). Sex cord-stromal tumors of the testis with entrapped germ cells: A lesion mimicking unclassified mixed germ cell sex cord-stromal tumors. American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 24(4), 535–542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Young, R. H., & Talerman, A. (1987). Testicular tumors other than germ cell tumors. Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology, 4(4), 342–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Uropathology Unit, Department of PathologyFondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di MilanoMilanItaly
  2. 2.Department of PathologyFondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di MilanoMilanItaly