2020 Edition
| Editors: Maria Rosaria Raspollini, Antonio Lopez-Beltran

Metaplastic Condition of the Bladder

  • Antonio Galzerano
  • Antonio Lopez-Beltran
  • Maria Rosaria RaspolliniEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-41894-6_4845


Bladder metaplasia; Leukoplakia (this term is referred to as keratinizing squamous metaplasia); Metaplasia of the bladder


Changes of the urothelium in response to local injury. Squamous metaplasia is the most common metaplasia seen in the urothelium. It consists in two forms: non-keratinizing squamous metaplasia seen in the bladder trigone (vaginal metaplasia) and keratinizing squamous metaplasia.

Clinical Features

  • Incidence

    Squamous metaplasia of the bladder is common.

  • Age

    It occurs mainly in adult age.

  • Sex

    Non-keratinizing squamous metaplasia occurs more in premenopausal women; it is responsive to estrogen production; thus, it occurs in the cervix. It arises without evidence of previous injury. Female-to-male ratio is 8:1.

    Keratinizing squamous metaplasia occurs mainly in the males.

  • Site

    Trigone is the most common site of non-keratinizing squamous metaplasia in the female patients. Keratinizing squamous metaplasia in the males occurs mainly in bladder diverticula,...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Clouston, D., & Lawrentschuk, N. (2013). Metaplastic conditions of the bladder. BJU International, 112, 27–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Khan, M. S., Thornhill, J. A., Gaffney, E., et al. (2002). Keratinizing squamous metaplasia of the bladder: Natural history and rationalization of management based on review of 54 years of experience. European Urology, 42, 469–474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Tannenbaum, M. (1976). Inflammatory proliferative lesion of the urinary bladder: Squamous metaplasia. Urology, 7, 428–429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Zahran, M. M., Kamel, M., Mooro, H., & Issa, A. (1976). Bilharziasis of the urinary bladder and ureter: Comparative histopathologic study. Urology, 8, 73–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antonio Galzerano
    • 1
  • Antonio Lopez-Beltran
    • 1
    • 2
  • Maria Rosaria Raspollini
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Pathology ServiceChampalimaud Clinical CenterLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.Department of Surgery and PathologyUniversity of Cordoba Medical SchoolCordobaSpain
  3. 3.Histopathology and Molecular DiagnosticsUniversity Hospital CareggiFlorenceItaly