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Lithiasis is the formation of calculi or stones, which are concretions of material, usually mineral salts, in an organ.
Lithiasis in urinary system is an extremely common disease, most frequently seen in the kidney (nephrolithiasis). Calcium oxalate-based stones are the most common type of calculi. Less frequent are those of struvite, acid uric, and cysteine stones. The composition of the stones is variable; the calculi are the result of metabolic disorders, diet, urinary tract abnormalities, and genetic predisposition. Conversely, struvite stones are related to chronic bacterial infection of the urinary tract, with the presence of urea-splitting bacteria. Struvite stones are more common in patients with upper tract infection (Balaji and Menon 1997).
Lithiasis is more common in adults, but may also occur in children with dietary low proteins and liquids.
Lithiasis is more common in males. They are frequently...
References and Further Reading
- Balaji KC., Menon M. (1997). Mechanism of stone formation. Urol Clin North Am. The Urologic Clinics of North America, 24, 1–11.Google Scholar