2020 Edition
| Editors: Maria Rosaria Raspollini, Antonio Lopez-Beltran


  • Maria Rosaria RaspolliniEmail author
  • Antonio Lopez-Beltran
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-41894-6_4839


Calculi; Stones


Lithiasis is the formation of calculi or stones, which are concretions of material, usually mineral salts, in an organ.

Clinical Features

  • Incidence

    Lithiasis in urinary system is an extremely common disease, most frequently seen in the kidney (nephrolithiasis). Calcium oxalate-based stones are the most common type of calculi. Less frequent are those of struvite, acid uric, and cysteine stones. The composition of the stones is variable; the calculi are the result of metabolic disorders, diet, urinary tract abnormalities, and genetic predisposition. Conversely, struvite stones are related to chronic bacterial infection of the urinary tract, with the presence of urea-splitting bacteria. Struvite stones are more common in patients with upper tract infection (Balaji and Menon 1997).

  • Age

    Lithiasis is more common in adults, but may also occur in children with dietary low proteins and liquids.

  • Sex

    Lithiasis is more common in males. They are frequently...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Balaji KC., Menon M. (1997). Mechanism of stone formation. Urol Clin North Am. The Urologic Clinics of North America, 24, 1–11.Google Scholar
  2. Chow, W.-H., Lindblad, P., Grindley, G., et al. (1997). Risk of urinary tract cancers following kidney or ureter stones. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 89, 1453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Healy, K. A., & Ogan, K. (2007). Pathophysiology and management of infectious staghorn calculi. The Urologic Clinics of North America, 34, 363–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Nistal, M., Martinez-Garcia, C., & Paniagua, R. (1995). The origin of testicular microlithiasis. International Journal of Andrology, 18, 221–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ozdamar, A. S., Ozkurkcugil, C., Gultekin, Y., et al. (1997). Should we get routine urothelial biopsies in every stone surgery? International Urology and Nephrology, 29, 415–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Rosaria Raspollini
    • 1
    Email author
  • Antonio Lopez-Beltran
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Histopathology and Molecular DiagnosticsUniversity Hospital CareggiFlorenceItaly
  2. 2.Pathology ServiceChampalimaud Clinical CenterLisbonPortugal
  3. 3.Unit of Anatomic Pathology, Department of SurgeryCordoba University Medical SchoolCordobaSpain