2020 Edition
| Editors: Maria Rosaria Raspollini, Antonio Lopez-Beltran

Germ Cell Tumors

  • Maurizio ColecchiaEmail author
  • Alessia Bertolotti
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-41894-6_4818


Type II germ cell tumor of the testis

Clinical Features

  • Incidence

    Although testicular cancers are rare, accounting for only 1% of all cancers in males, they are the most common malignancy among white young men between puberty and their 40s in industrialized countries (Gatta and Trama 2016). Approximately, 98% of testicular cancers are germ cell tumors (GCTs); the remaining 2% are sex cord tumors or hematopoietic tumors. In the prepubertal period testicular tumors of the testis are rare with annual incidence estimated for 1–2% of all solid pediatric tumors, with germ cell tumors accounting for 71% (yolk sac tumors 49%, teratomas 13%, seminoma and mixed germ cell tumors 9%), while gonadal stromal tumors are 29% of the prepubertal testicular tumors (Ross and Kay 2004). The young average patient age, the bell-shaped age distribution, and the decreased risk for TGCTs among men born in North America and several European populations during World War II are consistent with tumor...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Cao, D., Li, J., Guo, C. C., et al. (2009). SALL4 is a novel diagnostic marker for testicular germ cell tumors. American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 33(7), 1065–1077.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Gatta, G., & Trama, A. (2016). Epidemiology of testicular cancer. In Pathology of testicular and penile neoplasms (pp. 3–18). Cham: Springer International Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hawkins, E., Heifetz, S. A., Giller, R., et al. (1997). The prepubertal testis (prenatal and postnatal): Its relationship to intratubular germ cell neoplasia: A combined Pediatric Oncology Group and Children’s Cancer Study Group. Human Pathology, 28, 404–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Kvammen, Ø., Myklebust, T. Å., Solberg, A., et al. (2016). Long-term relative survival after diagnosis of testicular germ cell tumor. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, 25(5), 773–779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Moch, H., Humphrey, P. A., Ulbright, T. M., & Reuter, V. E. (2016). WHO classification of tumours of the urinary system and male genital organs (4th ed.). Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer.Google Scholar
  6. Ross, J. H., & Kay, R. (2004). Prepubertal testis tumors. Reviews in Urology, 6, 11–18.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Skakkebaek, N. E., Holm, M., Hoei-Hansen, C., et al. (2003). Association between testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) and testicular neoplasia: Evidence from 20 adult patients with signs of maldevelopment of the testis. Acta Pathologica Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica, 111, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Spiekermann, M., Belge, G., Winter, N., et al. (2015). MicroRNA miR-371a-3p in serum of patients with germ cell tumours: Evaluations for establishing a serum biomarker. Andrology, 3(1), 78–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Uropathology Unit, Department of PathologyFondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di MilanoMilanItaly
  2. 2.Department of PathologyFondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di MilanoMilanItaly