2020 Edition
| Editors: Maria Rosaria Raspollini, Antonio Lopez-Beltran

Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

  • Anna Caliò
  • Diego Segala
  • Guido MartignoniEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-41894-6_4792


Grawitz tumour; Hypernephroma; Renal clear cell adenocarcinoma


Clear cell renal cell carcinoma is a morphologically heterogeneous group of malignant tumors made up of cells with clear or eosinophilic cytoplasm and characteristic vessel formation.

Clinical Features

Seventy percent of cases are found incidentally on imaging. Hematuria and flank pain are the most common signs of the symptomatic cases. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma can be sporadic or occurs in Von Hippel–Lindau disease. It is a rare, autosomal dominant syndrome consisting of retinal angiomas, hemangioblastomas of the central nervous system, pheochromocytomas, and clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
  • Incidence

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma is the most common malignancy among renal cell neoplasms, representing roughly 70% of all renal cell tumors.

  • Age

    It occurs in patients around 60–70 years of age.

  • Sex

    Its male/female ratio is 2:1.

  • Site

    There is no site predilection.

  • Treatment

    Partial or radical...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Al-Ahmadie, H. A., Alden, D., Qin, L. X., Olgac, S., Fine, S. W., Gopalan, A., Russo, P., Motzer, R. J., Reuter, V. E., & Tickoo, S. K. (2008). Carbonic anhydrase IX expression in clear cell renal cell carcinoma: An immunohistochemical study comparing 2 antibodies. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 32(3), 377–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cheville, J. C., Lohse, C. M., Zincke, H., Weaver, A. L., & Blute, M. L. (2003). Comparisons of outcome and prognostic features among histologic subtypes of renal cell carcinoma. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 27(5), 612–624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Delahunt, B., Cheville, J. C., Martignoni, G., Humphrey, P. A., Magi-Galluzzi, C., McKenney, J., Egevad, L., Algaba, F., Moch, H., Grignon, D. J., Montironi, R., & Srigley, J. R. (2013). Members of the ISUP Renal Tumor Panel. The International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grading system for renal cell carcinoma and other prognostic parameters. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 37(10), 1490–1504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Przybycin, C. G., McKenney, J. K., Reynolds, J. P., Campbell, S., Zhou, M., Karafa, M. T., & Magi-Galluzzi, C. (2014). Rhabdoid differentiation is associated with aggressive behavior in renal cell carcinoma: A clinicopathologic analysis of 76 cases with clinical follow-up. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 38(9), 1260–1265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Sato, Y., Yoshizato, T., Shiraishi, Y., Maekawa, S., Okuno, Y., Kamura, T., Shimamura, T., Sato-Otsubo, A., Nagae, G., Suzuki, H., Nagata, Y., Yoshida, K., Kon, A., Suzuki, Y., Chiba, K., Tanaka, H., Niida, A., Fujimoto, A., Tsunoda, T., Morikawa, T., Maeda, D., Kume, H., Sugano, S., Fukayama, M., Aburatani, H., Sanada, M., Miyano, S., Homma, Y., & Ogawa, S. (2013). Integrated molecular analysis of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma. Nature Genetics, 45(8), 860–867.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Diagnostic and Public Health, Section of PathologyUniversity of VeronaVeronaItaly
  2. 2.Department of PathologyPederzoli HospitalPeschiera del GardaItaly