2020 Edition
| Editors: Maria Rosaria Raspollini, Antonio Lopez-Beltran


  • Alessandro FranchiEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-41894-6_4780


Hemangiosarcoma; Malignant hemangioendothelioma


Angiosarcoma (AS) is a malignant tumor of endothelial cells.

Clinical Features

  • Incidence

    AS of the urogenital tract is very rare, with most studies consisting of single case reports. A weak association with previous radiotherapy has been reported.

  • Age

    It occurs in adult and elderly patients.

  • Sex

    AS of the kidney occurs more frequently in males than females (M:F = 7:1).

  • Site

    Urogenital angiosarcomas arise more frequently in the kidney and prostate. Rare cases have been described in the ureter, the bladder, the epididymis, and the penis.

  • Treatment

    Surgery is the primary treatment, with radiotherapy and chemotherapy employed in approximately 30% of the patients.

  • Outcome

    AS is a high-grade tumor with frequent local relapse and lymph node and distant metastases. The lungs and liver are the most common sites of metastasis.


Grossly, the tumor presents as an ill-defined, invasive hemorrhagic mass often with areas of...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Abarzua-Cabezas, F., Earle, J., & Meraney, A. (2014). Angiosarcoma of the corpora cavernosa. International Journal of Urology, 21, 622–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brown, J. G., Folpe, A. L., Rao, P., Lazar, A. J., Paner, G. P., Gupta, R., Parakh, R., Cheville, J. C., & Amin, M. B. (2010). Primary vascular tumors and tumor-like lesions of the kidney: A clinicopathologic analysis of 25 cases. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 34, 942–949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Gogoi, D., Hazra, S., Ghosh, B., & Pal, D. (2013). Angiosarcoma of penis. BML Case Reports, 2013. pii: bcr2013200878.Google Scholar
  4. Hayn, M. H., Bastacky, S., & Franks, M. E. (2007). Epididymal angiosarcoma. Urology, 69, 576.e5–576.e7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Omiyale, A. O., & Carton, J. (2018). Clinical and pathologic features of primary Angiosarcoma of the kidney. Current Urology Reports, 19, 4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Padaki, P., Hutton, R., Amer, T., Hasan, R., Pugh, D., & Little, B. (2016). A rare case of primary epithelioid angiosarcoma of the ureter. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, 98, e184–e185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Seethala, R. R., Gomez, J. A., & Vakar-Lopez, F. (2006). Primary angiosarcoma of the bladder. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 130, 1543–1547.Google Scholar

Copyright information

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Translational Research and of New Technologies in Medicine and SurgeryUniversity of PisaPisaItaly