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A malignant germ cell tumor morphologically represented by cells similar to primordial germ cells/gonocytes.
Seminoma comprises 40–50% of all GCTs. About 10% of seminoma patients have a history of criptorchidism and higher proportions have been noted in patients with immunodeficiency disorders.
It occurs commonly between the age of 25–50, with a peak incidence at about 34 years. Seminoma is virtually nonexistent before puberty and it is rare in adolescence (1%) with the exception of children who have a disorder of sex development; seminoma is rare in men older than 70 years (Berney et al. 2008).
Most patients present with a testicular mass, while 3% of seminomas present with symptoms related to metastatic localization as lower back pain caused by retroperitoneal lymphnode involvement. Other lymphnodal metastases could occur to the mediastinal and cervical lymphnodes; visceral metastases typically occur in the liver and...
References and Further Reading
- Berney, D. M., Warren, A. Y., Verma, M., Kudahetti, S., Robson, J. M., Williams, M. W., Neal, D. E., Powles, T., Shamash, J., & Oliver, R. T. (2008). Malignant germ cell tumours in the elderly: A histopathological review of 50 cases in men aged 60 years or over. Modern Pathology, 21(1), 54–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar