2020 Edition
| Editors: Maria Rosaria Raspollini, Antonio Lopez-Beltran

Leydig Cell Tumor

  • Maurizio ColecchiaEmail author
  • Alessia Bertolotti
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-41894-6_3789


Interstitial cell tumor


Leydig cell tumors (LCTs) are composed of medium to large polygonal cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and resembling non-neoplastic Leydig cells of the testis.

Clinical Features

LCTs are responsible for 10% of all cases of early pseudopuberty in children. The presentation of the precocious pseudopuberty symptoms occurs in the first 5 years of life (isosexual pseudoprecocity) (Kim et al. 1985). LCTs may be seen at any age in the adult life with asymptomatic testicular mass, but they may present with gynaecomastia and with the Cushing syndrome. Increased serum levels of testosterone and androstenedione are commonly seen. Bilaterality is an unusual presentation, found in 3% of cases. A minority of tumors occur with metastases in the setting of rare cases of malignant LCT (Suardi et al. 2009). In a few cases, LCT was found to be associated with Klinefelter syndrome (Sogge et al. 1979).


LCTs are usually small, solid,...
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References and Further Reading

  1. Cheville, J. C., Sebo, T. J., Lager, D. J., Bostwick, D. G., & Farrow, G. M. (1998). Leydig cell tumor of the testis: A clinicopathologic, DNA content, and MIB-1 comparison of nonmetastasizing and metastasizing tumors. American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 22(11), 1361–1367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Kim, I., Young, R. H., & Scully, R. E. (1985). Leydig cell tumors of the testis. A clinicopathological analysis of 40 cases and review of the literature. American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 9(3), 177–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Sogge, M. R., McDonald, S. D., & Cofold, P. B. (1979). The malignant potential of the dysgenetic germ cell in Klinefelter’s syndrome. The American Journal of Medicine, 66(3), 515–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Suardi, N., Strada, E., Colombo, R., Freschi, M., Salonia, A., Lania, C., Cestari, A., Carmignani, L., Guazzoni, G., Rigatti, P., & Montorsi, F. (2009). Leydig cell tumour of the testis: Presentation, therapy, long-term follow-up and the role of organ-sparing surgery in a single-institution experience. BJU International, 103(2), 197–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ulbright, T. M., Srigley, J. R., Hatzianastassiou, D. K., & Young, R. H. (2002). Leydig cell tumors of the testis with unusual features: Adipose differentiation, calcification with ossification, and spindle-shaped tumor cells. American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 26(11), 1424–1433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Wang, Z., Yang, S., Shi, H., Du, H., Xue, L., Wang, L., Dong, Y., & Han, A. (2011). Histopathological and immunophenotypic features of testicular tumour of the adrenogenital syndrome. Histopathology, 58(7), 1013–1018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Uropathology Unit, Department of PathologyFondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di MilanoMilanItaly
  2. 2.Department of PathologyFondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di MilanoMilanItaly