Medullary Sponge Kidney
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Cystic disease of renal pyramids
It is a nongenetically transmitted likely congenital disease, usually asymptomatic, characterized by the presence of ectasia of papillary collecting ducts in the renal medulla.
It is a rare disease, characterized by a prevalence among the general population ranging between 5/10,000 and 5/100,000.
It is commonly detected in adults, although pediatric cases are reported.
No gender predilection.
Kidneys are bilaterally affected with normal size and intact function.
There is no specific treatment for medullary sponge kidney, and the current therapeutic options are aimed to avoid the complications or solve them.
The outcome is related to complications.
The main clinical symptom is given by renal lithiasis, which only occasionally has the staghorn morphology. Intravenous urography shows distinctive radial linear streaking in the cystic renal papillae resembling bunch of flowers.