Encyclopedia of Molecular Pharmacology

Living Edition
| Editors: Stefan Offermanns, Walter Rosenthal

Adenylyl Cyclases

  • Carmen W. DessauerEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-21573-6_3-1
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Synonyms

Definition

Adenylyl cyclases (AC) comprise a family of enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of adenosine 3′:5′-monophosphate (cyclic AMP, cAMP) from adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP). The second messenger cAMP regulates effects in all eukaryotic cells, through the activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), cAMP-gated ion channels (CNGs), hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, exchange proteins activated by cAMP (Epacs), and Popeye domain containing (Popdc) proteins, in addition to the regulation of a subset of cAMP- and cGMP-degrading enzymes (PDEs, phosphodiesteras​es) (Fig. 1). Cellular levels of cAMP levels reflect the balance of activities of adenylyl cyclases (ACs: 5′-ATP to cAMP + PPi) and cAMP phosphodiesteras​es (PDEs: cAMP to 5′-AMP). Adenylyl cyclases occur throughout the animal kingdom...
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References

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Integrative Biology and PharmacologyMcGovern Medical School, University of Texas Health Science CenterHoustonUSA