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Apelin (APLN) is a small adipokine released primarily by adipose tissue. It is also expressed in many organs, including the brain, heart, lung, kidney, and stomach. It is a ligand for the G-protein-coupled receptor APJ. Apelin is involved in many physiological processes, such as regulation of blood pressure, body fluid homeostasis, the endocrine stress response, cardiac contractility, angiogenesis, and energy metabolism. It may also participate in pathological processes, including heart failure, obesity, diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases.