Encyclopedia of Molecular Pharmacology

Living Edition
| Editors: Stefan Offermanns, Walter Rosenthal


  • Marta Podgórska
  • Katarzyna Pietraszek-Gremplewicz
  • Dorota NowakEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-21573-6_10036-1



Apelin (APLN) is a small adipokine released primarily by adipose tissue. It is also expressed in many organs, including the brain, heart, lung, kidney, and stomach. It is a ligand for the G-protein-coupled receptor APJ. Apelin is involved in many physiological processes, such as regulation of blood pressure, body fluid homeostasis, the endocrine stress response, cardiac contractility, angiogenesis, and energy metabolism. It may also participate in pathological processes, including heart failure, obesity, diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases.

Basic Characteristic

Apelinergic System

Apelin is an endogenous peptide first isolated from the bovine stomach in 1998, encoded by the apelin gene APLNlocated on chromosome Xq25-26.1. Its receptor APJ (APLNR) belongs to the family of seven-transmembrane proteins and is closely related to the angiotensin receptor. Apelin is secreted by adipose tissue as a...
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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marta Podgórska
    • 1
  • Katarzyna Pietraszek-Gremplewicz
    • 1
  • Dorota Nowak
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Cell Pathology, Faculty of BiotechnologyUniversity of WroclawWroclawPoland