Encyclopedia of Education and Information Technologies

2020 Edition
| Editors: Arthur Tatnall

Online Teaching, Emotions, and Emoticons in Computer-Mediated Communication

  • Cornelia ConnollyEmail author
  • Mayank Singh Parihar
  • Nicola Marsden
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-10576-1_78



The most natural and perhaps richest form of communication is face-to-face communication, but due to the growth of computer systems and Internet usage during the past three decades, new ways of communication have emerged. Computer-mediated communication can be defined as human communication that is maintained or altered through machines. For effective communication, cues other than verbal are important, especially to develop relationships (Walther and Parks 2002). In face-to-face (F2F) communication, emotions are expressed by appearance, facial expression, gesture, and postures, but in CMC social cues are replaced by content, style, and timing of verbal online messages (Walther and Parks 2002). To fill the gap and deal with the lack of nonverbal cues in text-based communication, the interaction has to include some nonverbal cues to express emotion over a period of time.

The term paralanguage...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cornelia Connolly
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mayank Singh Parihar
    • 2
  • Nicola Marsden
    • 2
  1. 1.School of EducationNational University of Ireland (NUI)GalwayIreland
  2. 2.Faculty of Computer ScienceHeilbronn UniversityHeilbronnGermany

Section editors and affiliations

  • Don Passey
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Technology Enhanced Learning, Department of Educational ResearchLancaster UniversityLancasterUK