Online Teaching, Emotions, and Emoticons in Computer-Mediated Communication
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The most natural and perhaps richest form of communication is face-to-face communication, but due to the growth of computer systems and Internet usage during the past three decades, new ways of communication have emerged. Computer-mediated communication can be defined as human communication that is maintained or altered through machines. For effective communication, cues other than verbal are important, especially to develop relationships (Walther and Parks 2002). In face-to-face (F2F) communication, emotions are expressed by appearance, facial expression, gesture, and postures, but in CMC social cues are replaced by content, style, and timing of verbal online messages (Walther and Parks 2002). To fill the gap and deal with the lack of nonverbal cues in text-based communication, the interaction has to include some nonverbal cues to express emotion over a period of time.
The term paralanguage...
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